Helictite - Journal of Australasian Speleological Research
Papers, Reviews and Abstracts published in
Volumes 10 (1972) to Volume 19 (1981)

Helictite Indexes page    Abstracts of Vols 1 - 9    Abstracts of Vols 20 - 29    Helictite Home page    Key to Abstractors

The abstracts appear in reverse order of the publishing sequence in Helictite.

Title: Determination of Karst Water Aggressiveness By Artificial Saturation: A Comparison of Results Obtained Using Limestone and Reagent Grade Calcium Carbonate
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: Trials of the method of estimating the aggressiveness of karst water by artificial saturation (Stenner, 1969) were made on stream and spring waters in limestone country at Buchan, Victoria. Saturation was brought about with both laboratory reagent grade calcium carbonate and also with powdered local limestone. Resulting estimates of the initial degree of saturation varied considerably. The differences amounted to an average 5.6% (maximum 8.0%) in aggressiveness estimated from change in total hardness, 8.8% (maximum 14.0%) using calcium hardness, and 9.4% (maximum 31.0%) using magnesium hardness. Whilst the average difference between the two sets of results are not great, and certainly do not prohibit the use of the original Stenner method, they do serve to indicate that in particular individual cases misleading results can be obtained if local limestone is not used. Possible reasons for the differing behaviour of the two materials is suggested.
Includes: 1 table, 15 refs
Title: Variation of Hardness in Cave Drips at Two Tasmanian Sites
Authors: Goede, Albert
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: Thirteen consecutive monthly samples were collected from two drip sites at each of two Tasmanian caves: Little Trimmer at Mole Creek and Frankcombe Cave in the Florentine Valley. At one of the two drip sites in Little Trimmer a positive relationship was found between the logarithm of precipitation and the total hardness without any detectable lag effect. No such relationship was detected at the other drip site despite its close proximity. At both drip sites the hardness values fail to show a seasonal pattern and are clearly unrelated to surface temperature variations. In strong contrast both drip sites in Frankcombe Cave showed significant seasonal variation and close positive correlation with mean monthly temperature with lag times of one and two months respectively. At one of the two drip sites the influence of monthly precipitation on variations in drip hardness could also be detected. The strong temperature dependence of cave drip hardness values at these sites may well be due to soil exposure to direct insolation following recent clearfelling and burning of vegetation in the area.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table, 5 refs
Title: Towards An Air Quality Standard For Tourist Caves : Studies of Carbon Dioxide Enriched Atmospheres In Gaden - Coral Cave, Wellington Caves, N.S.W.
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: Carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres are not uncommon in Australian caves and have posed a safety problem for cavers. Carbon dioxide enrichment of a tourist cave's atmosphere is a management problem which can only be approached when standards for air quality are applied. In Gaden - Coral Cave two types of carbon dioxide enrichment are recognised; enrichment by human respiration and enrichment from an external source. Standards for air quality in mines and submersible vehicles are applicable to tourist caves. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5% carbon dioxide is recommended as the safe, but not the most desirable, air quality standard for tourist caves.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 21 refs
Title: Geomorphology and Past Environments at Nombe Rockshelter, Simbu Province, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Gillieson, David S. ; Mountain, Mary-Jane
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by authors: The geomorphic development of a limestone rockshelter in the Chimbu region of New Guinea is outlined. The sedimentary sequence and associated artifactual material are described and related to regional chronology. Disturbance of the rockshelter deposits by seismic and erosive processes is indicated, and must be borne in mind when excavating and analysing material from similar sites.
Includes: 4 figures, 11 refs
Title: Abstract: Darwin and Diprotodon: The Wellington Cave Fossils and the Law of Succession IN: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 104, 1980 for 1979:265-272
Authors: Dugan, Kathleen G.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by Jennings, Joe: The fossils from Wellington Caves, some of them 'giant', are well known to Australian speleologists, finds of importance for the study of Australian fauna from early discovered caves. What I think we did not appreciate was that the Wellington 'bones' have a place in the world history of science of significance also, the theme of this paper. Many of you will have watched the BBC-TV series on 'The Voyage of the Beagle'; much was made of the importance to Darwin in developing his theory of evolution of the fossils he found in southern South America. There fossils of giant relatives of sloths, llamas and armadillos helped to make clear to him the notion of the geological succession of life, a basic part of his theory along with the idea of natural selection to which the finches and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands proved crucial. However it seems that Darwin was previously aware of the similar significance of the Wellington Caves bones for the law of succession from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which quotes William Clift's identifications of dasyures, wombats and kangaroos amongst them. The fact that these recently extinct animals were closely related to the distinctive modern marsupial fauna of Australia counted much against earlier conceptions such as Cuvier's catastrophic theory or Buckland's ideas of successive divine creations within a short time span. Watchers of the TV series will remember the devious role played by the palaeontologist, Sir Richard Owen, in organising public opposition to Darwin at the famous Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This article relates the series of rearguard actions of Owen to maintain that there was a fossil elephant component in the ancient Australian fauna, damaging to Darwinism. But the growing evidence from Australia, not all of it from caves, of course, finally extinguished this red herring, started by that doctrinaire N.S.W. colonial, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang.
Title: Gulemwawaya: A Cave in Welded Tuff At Budoya, Fergusson Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: A 30m cave in pyroclastic deposits on the flank of a volcano is thought to be made by eluviation and fluvial erosion, and possibly supported mechanically by welded tuffs above. This note is to record a small but significant cave that deserves further attention. I visited the cave for about half an hour in July 1980 and had no facilities for survey or photography.
Includes: 3 refs
Title: Damawewe Cave, Alotau, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Pain, C.F. ; Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Damawewe Cave is a cave formed in Quaternary limestone near Alotau, Papua New Guinea. It consists of three sets of passages: the uppermost (and oldest) are the largest and the lowermost (active) are the smallest. Although the cave is mainly vadose, there is evidence of enlargement by corrosion and by collapse (in the uppermost level), and the sequence of cave formation has been interrupted by at least one phase of cave fill by clay and gravels.
Includes: 2 figures, 2 photos, 4 refs
Title: Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Cave Sediments
Authors: Gillieson, David S.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: The microstructure of the surfaces of quartz and grains can reveal their history prior to their deposition in a cave. The scanning electron microscope is the ideal tool for such studies. This paper presents examples of the sort of information obtainable from such a study, drawing examples from caves in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Norway.
Includes: 1 figure, 10 plates, 13 refs
Title: Chemistry of a Tropical Tufa-Depositing Spring Near Mt. Etna, Queensland: A Preliminary Analysis
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: Water samples taken from a spring and six locations on the stream fed by it were analysed in order to determine the factors responsible for the deposition of tufa along the channel. The spring water, whilst carrying a large quantity of dissolved carbonates, proved to be almost at equilibrium with calcite. The considerable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide necessary for such a load to be carried underwent rapid degassing after emergence of the water. In consequence, about one quarter of the initial load of dissolved carbonate was deposited in the first 430m of subaerial flow. This deposition did not however keep pace with the degassing of CO2, and calcite supersaturation increased progressively downstream.
Includes: 2 figures, 1 table, 1 photo, 14 refs
Title: Underground Streams on Acid Igneous Rocks in Victoria
Authors: Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1981, Helictite
Abstract by author: Underground streams occur in valley floors on acid igneous rocks over a wide area of eastern Victoria. In some cases the underground passage is capable of accommodating all streamflow levels so that there is no active surface channel. Three of them contain passages accessible to cavers. The literature contains very few references to features of this kind and there is some confusion as to whether they should be called 'pseudokarst'. Detailed descriptions and diagrams are presented for two of the sites, Labertouche and Brittania Creek. At North Maroondah, sinking streams on dacite have caused complications for hydrological experiments. Possible origins of these features are discussed and it is obvious that several mechanisms are feasible. One of the difficulties in determining modes of formation is that a variety of processes could lead to very similar end products. Three main theories on the mode of formation are suggested.
Includes: 6 figures, 2 tables, 18 refs
Title: Caves, Graves and Folklore of Normanby Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Pain, C.F. ; Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1980, Helictite
Abstract by authors: A rock shelter in gneiss and several caves in raised coral limestone are described from Normanby Island. Songs and stories that relate some of the caves to ancestors and to the mythical origin of the island population are recounted. Cave burials are described, which are predominantly accumulations of human skulls.
Includes: 2 figures, 4 photos, 5 refs
Title: Equilibrium Versus Events in River Behaviour and Blind Valleys at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N. ; Haosheng, Bao ; Spate, A.P.
Published: 1980, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Seventeen blind valleys of the Yarrangobilly karst are describes especially with reference to shifting streamsink location and phases of downward incision. A series of measures of them, based partly on ground traverses and partly on contoured maps, is presented and discussed. Standard morphometry of the basins ending in the blind valleys is presented also. These truncated basins are shown to have normal morphometric relationships. Whether a stream sinks or not in the limestone appears generally to relate to the length of limestone to be crossed in relation to full stream or basin length, though basin relief ratio may intervene. The hypothesis that there will be dynamic equilibrium between the dimensions of blind valleys and sinking stream catchments finds only limited support in the data. This is because underground stream capture represents an abnormal event in drainage basin development liable to upset equilibrium relationships and its timing may be adventitious in that development. With a larger population of blind valleys to be analysed, this factor of timing might become subordinate, and a batter predictive model of blind valley volume be derived.
Includes: 9 figures, 4 tables, 17 refs
Title: A Review of the Cord Technique (La Technique Cordelette)
Authors: Warild, A.T.
Published: 1980, Helictite
Abstract by author: The technique of descending a multi-pitch cave with only one rope, leaving a thin cord on each pitch for re-rigging the ascent, has recently become popular in France. This paper described some improvements to the technique and assesses its place in Australasian caving.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 1 photo, 2 refs
Title: Water Chemistry of the Atea Kananda and the Related Drainage Area
Authors: James, Julia M.
Published: 1980, Helictite
Abstract by author: The Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, pH and temperature have been measured in water from the Atea Kananda cave and related surface sites on the Muller Plateau (Papua New Guinea). A wide variation in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ values was found and this has been attributed to the lithology and nature (open or closed) of the water courses. From alkalinity measurements anions other than bicarbonate, probably sulphate are expected to be present in significant quantities in the cave waters. Most of the waters are aggressive. The Ca2+/Mg2+ x 10 ratio is shown to be a useful tool in predicting the origin of unknown waters in the cave. The variations of the measured and calculated parameters for groups of related surface and underground sites are presented and discussed. Tentative solution erosion rates for the Muller Plateau have been calculated and the conclusion reached that where the erosion can be placed as largely occuring on pure limestone these are high. Impure limestones and non-calcareous rocks in their catchments give anomalously low results for the main rivers. A scheme for cave development on the Muller Plateau by solution mechanisms is presented.
Includes: 4 figures, 7 tables,18 refs
Title: Determining Doline Origins; A Case Study
Authors: Jennings, J.N. ; Haosheng, Bao
Published: 1980, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Cases where there is clear evidence about the origin of a doline are less frequent than those where the indications are uncertain. Three dolines above Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, which are at first sight familiar but which in fact include both solution and collapse dolines, are examined to illustrate the strengths and limitations of different kinds of evidence for doline origin. Wherever possible, underground evidence should be sought.
Includes: 2 figures, 10 refs
Title: Morphology and Origin of Holy Jump Lava Cave, South-Eastern Queensland
Authors: Webb, John A.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by author: Holy Jump Lava Cave consists of portions of lava tubes in two superimposed flows. The upper tube probably connected with the downflow section of the lower tube via a lavafall. A small upflow part of the lower tube is also preserved, and shows the original wall and roof structures. Elsewhere the cave has suffered extensive breakdown, and only small sections of the original walls are still present. The cave has been further modified by secondary silica mineralisation, fine sediment deposition, and guano accumulation. The enclosing lava flows are early Miocene basalts of the Main Range Volcanics, making Holy Jump Lava Cave one of the oldest lava tube caves known.
Includes: 3 figures, 9 photos, 38 refs, 1 appendix, 5 appendix refs
Title: Sea Caves of King Island
Authors: Goede, Albert ; Harmon, Russell ; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Investigation of two King Island sea caves developed in quartzitic rocks shows them to contain a wealth of clastic and chemical sediments. Clastic sediments consist of wave-rounded cobbles, debris cones, and angular rock fragments produced by frost weathering and crystal wedging. Chemical deposits include a variety of calcium carbonate speleothems and also gypsum occurring as wall crusts and blisters. The latter appear to be a speleothem type of rare occurrence. Growth of gypsum is responsible for some crystal wedging of the bedrock. Three basal stalagmite samples have been dated by the Th/U method indicating Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene speleothem growth. The caves are believed to have formed by preferential wave erosion during the Last Interglacial in altered and fractured quartzites. The evidence for pre-Holocene evolution of sea caves and geos in the Tasman region is summarised. Tasmania and the Bass Strait Islands provide a particularly favourable environment for the preservation of relict landforms on rocky coasts because of Late Quaternary uplift. The potential of further studies of sea caves to test two recently advanced archaeological hypotheses is discussed.
Includes: 4 figures, 1 table, 8 photos, 22refs
Title: An Unusual Sandstone Cave From Northern Australia
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by author: The finding in recent years of much longer and more elaborate caves in quartz sandstone in South America than were known previously prompted a search for caves other than weathering caves in Arnhem Land in 1978. Though in the main unveiling for social reasons, it did lead to recognition that Yulirienji Cave, St Vidgeon Station, Northern Territory, well known for its Aboriginal rock art, is an abandoned, short river cave in quartz sandstone modified by weathering.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 photos, 11 refs
Title: Hardness Controls of Cave Drips, Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by author: Drips in the forward part of the Murray Cave between 5 and 50m below the surface were sampled about once a month for 2 years, carbon dioxide in the soil above and in the cave air being measured also. Mean soil CO2 content was fifteen times atmospheric, summer yeilding higher values than winter though the dry 1972-3 summer had low values. Greater depths in the soil had more CO2 than shallower ones. Cave air had on the average little more CO2 than the atmosphere but river flooding of the cave was followed by large CO2 fluctuations. There was a slight tendency for drips to be warmer and to vary less in temperature inwards. Drip pH was greater in summer than winter because of high CO2 production. The (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio of the drips was nearly ten times that of the Blue Waterholes, showing that igneous rock weathering around the Plain supplies more of the Na and K in the spring output than was envisaged before. The drip Mg/Ca ratio lies close to that of the Blue Waterholes, underlining the dominance of the limestone in the output hydrochemistry. The mean total hardness of 141 mg.L-1, not significantly different from earlier Murray cave drip measurements, sustains the previous estimate that the superficial zone provides about 2/3 of the limestone solution. The summer value (149 mg.L-1) is significantly greater than the winter mean (132 mg.L-1), including high values in the dry 1972-3 summer when CO2 values were low. Lagged correlation on a weekly and three weekly basis of individual drip hardness on air temperature and precipitation yielded few significant results. Only a weak case for dominance of hardness by temperature through rhizosphere CO2 was evident but neither was the conflicting hypothesis of hardness in such contradictory ways that more detailed observations over equally long time periods are necessary to elucidate their influence.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 tables, 15 refs
Title: Preliminary Report: Caves in Tertiary Basalt, Coolah, N.S.W.
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by author: Caves of up to 85m in length have been developed in amygdaloidal bodies within Tertairy basalts. Speleothems are found in some of these caves. The origin and development of these caves is being investigated.
Includes: 1 figure, 12 photos, 3 refs
Title: Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales
Authors: Connolly, M. ; Francis, G.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.
Includes: 9 figures, 2 photos, 39 refs
Title: Development of a Subterranean Meander Cutoff: The Abercrombie Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R. ; Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by authors: The Abercrombie Caves are exemplary of a subterranean meander cutoff. The bedrock morphology, especially flat solution ceilings, permits reconstruction of an evolution from slow phreatic initiation to epiphreatic establishment of a substantial throughway, followed by progressive succession to vadose flow and phased channel incision. At two separate stages, there was twofold streamsink entry and underground junction of flow. Five 14C dates from alluvial sediments show that capture of the surface stream was certainly complete before c.15,000 BP and that by c.5,000 BP the stream had almost cut down to its present level.
Includes: 8 figures, 6 refs
Title: Caves Of Woodlark Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Pain, C.F.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Woodlark Island consists of folded Tertiary rocks with a cover of Quaternary coral limestone that contains caves of two kinds:- river passage caves and shallow coastal caves mainly at old spring sites. Many caves contain remains of human burials and associated pottery.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 photo, 9 refs
Title: Bungonia Caves and Gorge, A New View of Their Geology and Geomorphology
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Francis, G. ; Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Work done at Bungonia since 1972 has filled gaps in our knowledge of this area. Water tracing has proven the earlier interference that the waters of all the major caves of the Lookdown Limestone and the uvula containing College Cave go to Efflux. Geological remapping shows that faulting allows these connections all to lie in limestone and accounts for the drainage of B4-5 away from the gorge. A 45m phreatic loop identified in Odyssey Cave, exceptionally large for south-eastern Australia, is also accounted for by the geological structure. Phoenix Cave has two successive cave levels similar to those of B4-5. The perched nature of the Efflux now finds a structural control in that the Folly Point Fault has interposed impervious beds between this spring and the gorge. Further analysis of the evidence relating the age of uplift and incision in the Shoalhaven and its tributaries strengthens the case for setting these in the lower Tertiary whereas most of the caves cannot be regarded as other than young. The geological remapping can partly account for the age discrepancy between underground and surface forms found at Bungonia.
Includes: 2 figures, 32 refs
Title: Caves and Karst On Misima Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Pain, C.F.
Published: 1978, Helictite
Abstract by authors: 27 caves were examined on Misima Island. Most are sea caves, but some have clear phreatic origins and some result from vadose solution along joints. One cave is formed by washing out of fragments in fault-shattered gneiss. Karst development in the raised coral appears to have been limited by the absence of streams flowing through the limestone. This results from the geomorphic development of the area, which has isolated the coral into discontinuous patches. Many caves have human burials, with associated pottery and one cave contains at least 100 skulls.
Includes: 4 figures, 1 table, 2 photos, 6 refs
Title: Quill Anthodites in Wyanbene Cave, Upper Shoalhaven District, New South Wales
Authors: Webb, J.A. ; Brush, J.B.
Published: 1978, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Anthodite fragments collected at Frustration Lake in Wyanbene Cave were examined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and found to be both calcite and aragonite. The aragonite quills are original; some of the calcite ones represent overgrowths of aragonite, but others may have formed as original calcite or by transformation of aragonite.
Includes: 2 figures, 17 photos, 24 refs
Title: Structure, Sediments and Speleogenesis at Cliefden Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1978, Helictite
Abstract by author: The Cliefden Caves have developed in the Late Ordovician Cliefden Caves Limestone mainly by solution in the phreatic zone. Speleogenesis has been inhibited in steeply dipping thinly bedded limestone and shows a high degree of structural control. Collapse has been significant in late stage development of the caves. Much sediment has been deposited in the four caves studied in detail - Main Cliefden, Murder, Boonderoo and Transmission. Formed in the phreatic zone, layered clay fill is the earliest sediment deposited and occurs in all but Transmission Cave. The phosphate mineral heterosite is found in these sediments. Subaqueous precipitation deposits deposited in the phreas or vadose pools are distinguished from speleothems by their texture. Aragonite is inferred to have been deposited in these sediments and to have since inverted to calcite. Friable loam and porous cavity fill are the most common vadose deposits in the caves. Vadose cementation has converted friable loam to porous cavity fill. Speleothem deposits are prolific in Main Cliefden, Murder and Boonderoo Caves. Helictites are related to porous wall surfaces, spar crystals result from flooding of caves in the vadose zone and blue stalactites are composed of aragonite. Cliefden Caves belong to that class proposed by Frank (1972) in which deposition has been more important than downcutting late in their developmental history.
Includes: 13 figures, 1 tables, 24 photos, 1 appendix, 36 refs
Title: Evaluation Criteria for the Cave and Karst heritage of Australia - Report of the Australian Speleological Federation - National Heritage Assessment Study (1977)
Authors: Davey, A.G. (ed)
Published: 1984, Helictite
Abstract by Davey, A.G.: Protection and management of natural heritage features such as karst landforms requires considered evaluation of the relative significance of individual features. The grounds for significance depend on the perspective taken. Aesthetic, educational, scientific and recreational values are all relevant and must each be given explicit recognition. Karst landforms are often considered primarily from a scientific perspective. The criteria used for evaluation of such natural heritage features for conservation and management purposes need to reflect this full range of values. This means that karst sites may have significance from one or more of these perspectives, as examples of natural features or landscapes, as examples of cultural features or landscapes or as the site of recreation opportunities. Some such sites will be identified as significant because they are representative of their class (irrespective of the relative importance of classes); others will be judged as significant because they are outstanding places of general interest.
Includes: 2 figures, 10 tables, 5 photos, 1 appendix, 268 refs
Title: A Chemical Investigation of some Groundwater of the Northern Limestone at Jenolan Caves
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Handel, M.L.
Published: 1977, Helictite
Abstract by authors: A brief description of the geology and drainage of the Northern limestone at Jenolan Caves is introduced. Approaches to karst geochemistry are given. The reasons are given for the choice of complete chemical analyses followed by calculations of the thermochemical parameters (saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite, SIc and SId, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide PCO2) for the Jenolan groundwaters. The methods of chemical analysis and thermochemical calculations are reported. The results of the groundwater survey are presented both as the raw chemical data and the derived thermochemical data. The raw data give more useful information than the calculated parameters. The results obtained by this survey are consistent with observations and the previous knowledge of the underground drainage of the Northern limestone. The water chemistry reflected the rock type and the residence time of the water in bedrock and gravels. It is concluded that the Jenolan underground River and Central River have different types of source and that Central River is not a braid of the Jenolan Underground River.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 16 refs, 3 appendices
Title: Frustration and New Year Caves and Their Neighbourhood, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W.
Authors: Rieder, L.G. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Francis, G.
Published: 1977, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Frustration and New Year Caves are active between-caves, paralleling in plan and profile the ephemeral stream bed of the V-shaped valley in which their entrances are found. The main streamsink in this valley system feeds their stream, which in turn supplies Zed Cave, a short outflow cave just outside the mouth of this valley. This modest derangement of surface drainage pattern is in keeping with the caves which show slight vadose modification of epiphreatic cave development. Although these active caves are young, they probably formed prior to a Late Pleistocene cold period (30,000 to 10,000 BP) on the basis of soils evidence. Clown Cave on the brow of the valley, a dry cave with indications of sluggish phreatic development, is related to a planation phase of Middle or Lower Tertiary age before valley incision. Bow and Keyslot Caves are abandoned in and out and outflow caves respectively, formed when the surface stream channel was a few metres above the present valley bottom so they antedate the active river caves a little. This hydrologically independent part of the Cooleman Plain mirrors in most respects the major parts draining to the Blue Waterholes, differing chiefly in the greater proportion of between-caves discovered so far.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 17 refs
Title: On the Subterranean Syncarids of Tasmania
Authors: Lake, P.S. ; Coleman, D.J.
Published: 1977, Helictite
Abstract by authors: The current knowledge on the occurrence of syncarid crustaceans in underground habitats in Tasmania is reviewed. The "mountain shrimp" Anaspides tasmaniae has been recorded on at least five occasions from caves. Syncarid shrimps in the genera Allenaspides, Koonunga and Nicraspides have been collected from crayfish burrows. The term Pholeteros is coined to define the community of organisms dwelling in crayfish burrows. Syncarids in the genera Koonunga and Atopobathynella have been collected in the bed of streams (Hyporheos). The collection of the new species of syncarid from an underground spring at Devonport is reported.
Includes: 4 photos, 1 appendix, 28 refs
Title: A New Development in Solving Problems of Large Scale Speleophotography "Diprotodon Poulter"
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1977, Helictite
Abstract by author: A discussion of the special requirements of photography in large caverns is followed by a history of the "Diprotodon" magnesium flare as a lighting source. A new model, Diprotodon poulter is described in detail.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 photos, 14 refs
Title: Protecting Rope From Abrasion In Single Rope Techniques
Authors: Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite
Abstract by author: The risk of abrasion of rope used for abseiling and prusiking on a pitch depends on the nature of the pitch, the characteristics of rub points on it and the technique of the caving party. This paper attempts to isolate these factors and discuss methods by which a rope can be protected from them.
Includes: 6 figures, 3 refs
Title: A Triple Dye Tracing Experiment At Yarrangobilly
Authors: Spate, A.P. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Ingle Smith, D. ; James, Julia M.
Published: 1976, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Rhodamine WT, leucophor HBS and fluorescein were inserted into Deep, Eagles Nest and Traverse Creeks respectively, all sinking wholly or partly into the limestone at Yarrangobilly, as part of a program to determine the catchment area of Hollin Cave. Hollin Cave and three other major springs, together with the Yarrangobilly River above, between and below these springs, were sampled for various periods manually or by machine. Heavy rains began a day after dye insertion. Various lines of evidence and analysis, including the plotting of regression residuals between different wavebands as time series, showed that the relevant fluorescent wavebands were affected by rises in natural fluorescence in the runoff, probably of organic origin. Green was affected most, then blue, and orange only slightly. It was possible to identify a dye pulse of rhodamine at Hollin Cave, most probably representing all the dye put in. A leucophor dye pulse was also identifiable here but a load curve could not be constructed because of probable interference by changing natural fluorescence. Tracing by fluorescein became impossible. Interference between the three dyes was demonstrated. The implications for future quantitative tracing here are discussed.
Includes: 7 figures, 3 tables, 13 refs
Title: Atea Kanada
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Randall, H. King ; Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite
Abstract by authors: The Atea Kanada in the Muller Range, Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, was investigated during the 1976 Muller Range Expedition. Four kilometres of cave passages were surveyed and the cave map is presented. The cave is described together with a tentative history of its development. The possible sinking points and resurgences of the cave water are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the depth and length potential, and feasibility of further exploration in such a river system.
Includes: 1 table, 4 maps, 9 photos, 5 refs
Title: A Geomorphological Assessment of the Chillagoe Karst Belt, Queensland
Authors: Marker, Margaret E.
Published: 1976, Helictite
Abstract by author: The geomorphological characteristics of the Chillagoe karst belt are analysed in terms of an evolution controlled by seasonally arid climatic conditions and lithological variation in the metamorphosed host rock.
Includes: 10 figures, 2 tables, 12 refs
Title: The Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology and Development of Odyssey Cave, Bungonia, New South Wales
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite
Abstract by authors: Odyssey Cave is described in detail and its development is related to the regional geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Bungonia karst.
Includes: 7 figures, 8 photos, 16 refs
Title: Paleo-distribution of Macroderma gigas in the South West of Western Australia
Authors: Bridge, P.J.
Published: 1975, Helictite
Abstract by GB: A study of the distribution of Macroderma remains in the caves of the southwest of Western Australia has shown greater past bat concentrations than previously recorded and that the distribution of skeletal remains and guano piles indicates a series of expansions and contractions of the Macroderma range during the Holocene.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 refs
Title: Chiropterite Deposits In Moorba Cave, Jurien Bay, Western Australia
Authors: Bridge, P.J. ; Hodge, L.C. ; Marsh, N.L. ; Thomas, A.G.
Published: 1975, Helictite
Abstract by authors: An old guano pile deposited by Macroderma gigas has been examined chemically and mineralogically. Sixteen sectional analyses of a profile are presented and discussed. The main soluble components are P2O5, CaO and SO3 (present as brushite, ardealite, gypsum and collophane) with insoluble quartz. Taranakite occurs as a minor constituent.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table, 4 photos, 11 refs
Title: Observations of karst hydrology in the Waga Valley, Southern Highlands District, Papua, New Guinea
Authors: Jacobson, G. ; Michael Bourke R.
Published: 1975, Helictite
Abstract by authors: In the neighbourhood of a possible dam site in the Waga Valley, Southern Highlands District, Papua New Guinea, there is little surface drainage apart from the Waga River itself. However, many nearby features - streamsinks, springs, estavelles, dry valleys, dolines and caves - are indicative of the marked development of karst drainage. Loss of river water by entry underground is not balanced by the known local outflows, and larger resurgences must be sought further afield to complete an understanding of the karst hydrology relevant for the engineering proposal.
Includes: 6 figures, 5 tables, 2 photos, 1 ref
Title: Dr. Robert Broom, Taralga
Authors: Hunt, Glenn S.
Published: 1974, Helictite
Abstract by GB: This short history traces Dr. Robert Broom's time in Australia 1892-1896, including his 18 months stay in the small town of Taralga, New South Wales, where he practised as a medical doctor. He carried out speleological and fossil activities in Australia at Chillagoe, Cudal, Hillgrove and especially Wombeyan. Material is taken from his previously undiscovered correspondence with The Australian Museum, Sydney,
Includes: 4 plates, 1 figure, 18 refs, 39 archival refs
Title: Sedimentary Development of the Walli Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R.
Published: 1974, Helictite
Abstract by author: The sedimentary history of the Walli Caves began with the deposition of finely laminated clay during the latter part of bedrock development in the phreatic zone. After aeration and entrance development, entrance facies accumulated, and this was followed by the deposition of large amounts of fluvial and lacustrine deposits. Episodic fluvial erosion of these deposits then took place, and flowstone was formed extensively during periods between each active erosion phase to produce a striking sequence of suspended flowstone sheets.
Includes: 12 figures, 6 photos, 14 refs
Title: Results of Survey levelling at Bungonia Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Anderson, Edward G.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: During 1971, members of the University of N.S.W. Speleological Society (UNSWSS) were working on a project to determine water table levels, as represented by sumps, in some of the Bungonia Caves. It was soon realised that the accuracy of heights determined from the available surface surveys, usually "forestry compass" traverses, was insufficient. The author was asked to provide more accurate surface levels and, consequently, two trips were organised on 24-25 July and 31 July 1971 with the aim of establishing a differential levelling net in the plateau area. Personnel on the first trip comprised E.G. Anderson and A.J. Watson (Senior Photogrammetrist, N.S.W. Lands Department), surveyors, and A.J. Pavey and M. Caplehorn, UNSWSS, assistants. On the second trip, M. Caplehorn was replaced by A. Culberg, UNSWSS.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 2 refs
Title: Evolution of the Wellington Caves Landscape
Authors: Francis, G.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: Wellington Caves, New South Wales (figure 1), have attracted scientific attention for more than a century, largely through discoveries in the cave sediments of bones from extinct animals. These bone discoveries provided impetus for a number of early speculations about the geomorphology of the caves area and its relationship to the caves. Notable among these was the conjecture of Mitchell (1839) that the valley floor sediments of the Bell River and the cave fills had been deposited during a marine transgression about one million years ago. The first systematic geomorphological work was carried out by Colditz (1943), who argued for two distinct relict erosion levels in the Bell Valley; the older level was assigned to the Lower Pliocene and the younger to the Upper Pliocene. Colditz considered that these levels provided evidence for two phases of uplift in late Tertiary times. More recently Frank (1971) made detailed studies of the cave sediments, and devoted some attention to landscape evolution. He believed that the Bell River had been captured by Catombal Creek, during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.
Includes: 2 figures, 26 refs
Title: Survey of the Spider Fauna of Australian Caves
Authors: Gray, M.R.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: A preliminary list of spiders from Australian caves is given and discussed. Some 90 species in 23 families are represented. While the fauna is essentially troglophilic, 11 species are classed as troglobites and a further 12 species as advanced troglophiles. The cave adapted fauna is largely confined to southern Australia with the notable exception of the pholcid troglobite, Spermophora sp. nov., which is a tropical relict. Troglobotic representatives of the families Pholcidae and Theridiidae are recorded for the first time. A maximum age of 2.5-3.0 million years is suggested for the troglobitic fauna. A comparison of the Australian and Japanese cave spider faunas is made.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 tables, 4 photos, 28 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Sedimentary and Morphological Development of the Borenore Caves, New South Wales, Part II
Authors: Frank, R.M.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: (as per Part I, Helictite 10(4):75) The Borenore Caves, west of Orange, occur in a partly metamorphosed Silurian limestone outcrop of about 5.5 km2 which forms an impounded karst. Both of the main caves, the Arch Cave and the Tunnel Cave, contain large quantities of clastic sediments. Evidence from the position and kind of sediments and from the bedrock features show that both caves have undergone a predominantly fluvial development by a sequence of stream captures. The same type of evidence indicates a dry climatic phase for the Borenore area about 28,000 BP.
Includes: 2 figures, 4 photos, 21 refs
Title: Hydrological Observations at the Junee Resurgence and a Brief Regional Description of the Junee Area, Tasmania
Authors: Goede, A.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: The results are presented for one year of field measurement and analysis of water samples at the Junee resurgence, one of the largest karst risings in Tasmania. The water emerges from Junee Cave at an altitude of approximately 300m and forms the source of the Junee River at a point about 5km north-west of the township of Maydena. The resurgence drains a large area along the southern boundary of the Mt Field National Park and appears to be fed by a number of streamsinks, the nearest of which are at least 2km distant. The only underground drainage connection proved so far is with one of the largest of these stramsinks, Khazad-dum. This cave has been explored to a depth of 321m and is recorded as Australia's deepest cave system. The Junee area is located in central southern Tasmania and is centred on 14640' East and 4245' South. The Junee resurgence is the only significant rising in the area and is commonly thought to drain most of the Junee area. This opinion is based largely on the interpretation of the geological structure as shown in the geological sketch map of Hughes and Everard (Hughes 1957). However, a more detailed examination of the area on which Figure 1 is based, suggests that the western limit of underground drainage towards the Junee resurgence may be more or less coincident with the axis of the NNW plunging Nichols Spur anticline. Further mapping of the geological structure, and water tracing, will be required to confirm this.
Includes: 9 figures, 2 tables, 15 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Sedimentary and Morphological Development of the Borenore Caves, New South Wales, Part I
Authors: Frank, R.M.
Published: 1973, Helictite
Abstract by author: (of parts I and II) The Borenore Caves, west of Orange, occur in a partly metamorphosed Silurian limestone outcrop of about 5.5km2 which forms an impounded karst. Both of the main caves, the Arch Cave and the Tunnel Cave, contain large quantities of clastic sediments. Evidence from the position and kind of sediments and from the bedrock features show that both caves have undergone a predominantly fluvial development by a sequence of stream captures. The same type of evidence indicates a dry climatic phase for the Borenore area about 28,000 BP.
Includes: 5 figs
Title: The Migration of Cave Arthropods Across The Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia
Authors: Richards, Aola, M.
Published: 1972, Helictite
Abstract by author: The Nullarbor Plain is a low plateau of Tertiary limestone covering an area of 194,175 km2 in southern Australia. It has a semi-arid climate and supports a stunted vegetation. Ninety-five species of arthropods have been recorded from 47 Nullarbor caves, and many of these species are widely distributed across the Plain. Two possible explanations for their distribution are discussed. Subterranean migration may occur through the widespread zone of small interconnecting cavities in the Nullarbor Limestone, but this has not yet been confirmed. While cave arthropods are confined to the cool, moist cave environment during the day, they have been observed at night in cave entrances, in dolines and on the surface of the Plain. Cave "breathing", similarity in cave and epigean climate at night, strong winds, occasional heavy rain and numerous animal burrows all contribute towards favourable conditions for surface migration.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 tables, 2 photos, 10 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Phascolarctos (Marsupialia, Vombatoidea) and an Associated Fossil Fauna From Koala Cave Near Yanchep, Western Australia
Authors: Archer, M.
Published: 1972, Helictite
Abstract by author: A recently discovered fossil fauna from Koala Cave (Yn 118), Yanchep, Western Australia, contains the marsupials Sthenurus brownei, Potorous platyops, Phascolarctos sp., Perameles sp., Vombatus sp., and a large snake. The fauna is in some respects comparable with the Mammoth Cave and Labyrinth Cave faunas of the Cape Leeuwin-Cape Naturaliste region.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 18 refs
Title: Observations at the Blue Waterholes, March 1965 - April 1969, and Limestone Solution on Cooleman Plain, N.S.W.
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1972, Helictite
Abstract by author: After brief descriptions of the geomorphology of the Cooleman Plain karst and in particular of the Blue Waterholes, the methods adopted to analyse the functioning of these major risings are detailed. The discharge regime of Cave Creek below them is oceanic pluvial in type perturbed by drought and snow. There is much annual variation both in seasonal incidence and total amount, with catchment efficiency correspondingly variable. Suspended sediment concentration is even more erratic and monthly determinations are inadequate for calculating corrasional denudation rates. Mean concentrations of suspended solids are about 1/18th of solute load. Total dissolved salts have a strong inverse relationship with discharge, and mean values are high compared with those for other catchments in eastern Australia but none of these determinations are from limestone catchments. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine contents are low compared with the same catchments but silica is relatively high. The ratio of alkaline earths to alkalis indicate that Cave Creek carries carbonate waters and there is an inverse regression of the ratio on discharge. There is inverse correlation of total hardness on discharge likewise due to concentration of surface waters by evaporation in dry periods, together with reduced underground solution rate at times of large, rapid flow. The spring waters remain aggressive. Close regressions of hardness on specific conductivity now permit the latter to be determined in the place of the former. Much evidence converges to indicate that all the springs at the Blue Waterholes are fed from the same conduit. The intermittent flow which comes down the North Branch on the surface to the Blue Waterholes differs significantly in many characters from the spring waters. Rates of Ca + M carbonate equivalent removal vary directly with discharge since hardness varies much less than does water volume. These gross rates have to be adjusted for (a) atmospheric salts entering the karst directly, (b) peripheral solute inputs from the non-karst two-thirds of the catchment and (c) subjacent karst solution before they can be taken as a measure of exposed karst denudation. The methods for achieving this are set out. The total corrections amount to about one third of the total hardness, though the correction for subjacent karst on its own lies within the experimental error of the investigation. The residual rate of limestone removal from the exposed karst also shows a winter/spring high rate and a summer/autumn low rate but the seasonal incidence and annual total varied very much from year to year. In comparison with results from karsts in broadly similar climate, the seasonal rhythm conforms and so does the high proportion (78%) of the solution taking place at or close to the surface. This reduces the importance of the impounded condition of this small karst but supports the use of karst denudation rate as a measure of surface lowering. Cave passage solution may however be more important in impounded karst than its absolute contribution might suggest, by promoting rapid development of underground circulation. The mean value of limestone removal is low for the climatic type and this is probably due to high evapotranspirational loss as well as to the process of eliminating atmospheric, peripheral non-karst and subjacent karst contributions. The difficulties of applying modern solution removal rate to the historical geomorphology of this karst are made evident; at the same time even crude extrapolations are shown to isolate problems valuably.
Includes: 8 figures, 2 tables, photos, 42 refs
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