Helictite Indexes page Abstracts of Vols 11 - 19 Abstracts of Vols 30 - 39 Helictite Home page Key to Abstractors
The abstracts appear in reverse order of the publishing sequence in Helictite.
Title: Caves of Eastern Fiji
Authors: NUNN, Patrick, D. ; OLLIER, Cliff ; RAWAICO, N. Bola
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(2):42-47
Abstract by authors: A number of caves from the islands of Lakeba, Nayau, Namuka and Moce in the Lau Islands Group, Fiji, are described and mapped for the first time. Limestone caves appear to be typical of those coral islands. Geomorphically they reveal that a first phase of cave development was phreatic, followed by an extended period of vadose development, and some caves are still active water courses. All the islands indicate uplift relative to sea level. Minor volcanic caves are found on Moce Island. Social requirements for cave exploration in Fiji are outlined.
Title: On Natural Cave Markings
Authors: BEDNARIK, Robert G.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(2):27-41
Abstract by author: This paper attempts to bring some light into the question of distinguishing petroglyphs from natural markings in caves, by exploring the range of the latter. Some types of natural markings resemble simple linear rock incisions and other forms of petroglyphs. A variety of natural processes causing cave markings are considered. An evaluation of their characteristics shows that it should be possible to confidently identify the cause of parietal markings in the vast majority of cases.
Title: The sulfate speleothems of Thampanna cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia
Authors: JAMES, Julia M.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):19-23
Abstract by RB: Examination of gypsum speleothems and chemical analysis of the cave drip waters (ions to chloride mole ratios, tot. dissolved solids, nitrate) confirm that the major source of the sulfate in Thampanna cave (Western Australia) is from seawater transported by rain.
Includes: 4 tables, 2 figs
Title: A geological review of Abercrombie caves
Authors: OSBORNE, R.A.L.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):8-18
Abstract by RB: Abercrombie caves (near Jenolan, N.S.W.) have developed in metamorphosed marble forming part of the Upper Silurian Kildrummie Formation. Geological structure and changes in lithology have strongly influenced cave development with pyritic thinly bedded units in the marble being preferentially eroded. The Abercrombie Arch originated as a through cave in Pliocene times, 4-5 millions years ago.
Includes: 7 figs, location and geological maps, map of Grove cave
Title: The Mount Cripps karst, North Western Tasmania
Authors: SHANNON, Henry ; DUTTON, Bevis ; HEAP, David ; SALT, Frank
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):3-7
Abstract by RB: An Ordovician limestone karst area of 20 sqkm is presented. Characteristics: a large scale closed depression; a high density of caves formed by autogenic percolation with limited surface drainage; a polygonal karst terrain. The evolution of this karst was subject to multiple Pleistocene glaciations. At present 3 cave systems over 0,5 km in length are known, the deepest cave is -80 m.
Includes: 3 figs
Title: A computer program for 3D cave maps
Authors: WARILD, Alan
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):41-45
Abstract by RB: Capabilities and limitation of Delta Graph, a graphing and drawing program for MacIntosh are discussed, with examples.
Title: A preliminary study of lead in cave spider's webs
Authors: JAMES, Julia M. ; GRAY, Michael ; NEWHOUSE, David J.
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):37-40
Abstract by RB: The spider Badumna socialis constructs large communal webs on the roof of several caves in New South Wales. An increase in the number of webs containing dead spiders and falling from the Grand Arch (Jenolan) was observed. One theory is that fumes or lead from the large number of cars driving through the arch is a contributing factor. A preliminary study analysing the Pb content of webs in 4 arches and caves does not confirm a lead intoxication.
Includes: 2 tables
Title: Karst water chemistry - Limestone Ranges, Western Australia
Authors: ELLAWAY, M. ; SMITH, D.I. ; GILLIESON, D.S. ; GREENAWAY, M.A.
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):25-36
Abstract by RB: Detailed chemical and physical analyses are presented for 42 karst waters (springs, groundwater) sampled in the Kimberley region in northern Western Australia (Devonian Reef complex) during May '88. A general pattern of physical and chemical effects (e.g. tufa deposition) was found.
Includes: 5 tables, 3 figs
Title: Bathymetry and origin of Lake Timk, South West Tasmania
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):18-21
Abstract by author: The bathymetry of Lake Timk suggests that it is a glacially over-deepened rock basin but one which owes much of its form to preglacial karst processes. Underground drainage from the lake forms part of an integrated karst conduit system. The lake bed does not provide the base level of vadose circulation in the karst at the present time as at least one negotiable cave extends under the lake.
Includes: 3 plates, 3 figs
Title: The changed route of the Grand Arch Stream, Jenolan - more evidence
Authors: SHAW, Trevor
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):15-17
Abstract by RB: Based on historical data from 1879 to 1895.
Includes: 2 plates
Title: The Undara lava tube system and its caves
Authors: ATKINSON, Anne
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):3-14
Abstract by RB: In the lava flow from the Undara volcano, McBride Basalt Province, North Queensland, more than 61 arches and caves have been discovered and over 6 km of cave passages has been surveyed; the longest cave is 1,35 km. The various collapse depressions adjacent to or aligned with have been also examined. The feature of the caves and arches are described in detail.
Includes: 13 plates, 6 figs, 2 tables
Title: Cavernicolous Spiders (Arancae) from Undara, Queensland and Cape Range, Western Australia
Authors: Gray, M.R.
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):87-89
Abstract by author: Two small collections of cavernicolous spiders from Undara, N.E. Queensland and Cape Range, W.A. are compared and their relationships are discussed. Cave adapted species are recorded for the families Ctenidae, Zodariidae, Nesticidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae and Desidae.
Includes: 1 table, 6 refs
Keywords: Ctenidae, Zodariidae, Nesticidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, Desidae
Title: Drought Damage in a Tasmanian Rainforest on Limestone
Authors: Duncan, Fred; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):83-86
Abstract by authors: Widespread but patchily distributed drought death of forest trees occurred in early 1988 on a limestone ridge at Mole Creek in Tasmania. A close juxtaposition of damaged and undamaged vegetation probably reflects differences in the speed of soil moisture decline down the length of individual soil-filled solution tubes in which trees are rooted. Possible palaeoecological, geomorphological and sivicultural implications are briefly reviewed.
Includes: 5 refs
Title: Data Handling Techniques for Cave Survey Processing
Authors: Vaughan-Taylor, Keir
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):72-82
Abstract by author: Survey processing programs require time consuming manual organisation of data, to ensure that processing takes place in a particular order. With appropriate data input techniques, data structures internal to a program and the use of recursive languages the need to order and pre-process data can be eliminated.
Includes: 3 figures, 6 refs
Title: Karst Features in Pleistocene Dunes, Bats Ridges, Western Victoria
Authors: White, Susan
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):53-71
Abstract by author: Karst features occur in Pleistocene aeolian calcarenite dunes at Bats Ridge near Portland, Victoria. The surficial and underground features show that the caves are sinuous shallow systems often with a number of entrances. Passage shape is often modified by collapse. Characteristic features such as speleothems, clastic sediments, solution pipes and foibes are described, especially "moonmilk". Syngenetic karst processes are briefly discussed.
Includes: 6 figures, 4 photos, 45 refs
Keywords: Pleistocene dune karst features, Speleothems, Clastic sediments, Foibes, Solution pipes
Title: Caves of Lukwi - Western Province, Papua New Guinea
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Bonwick, Mark ; Nieuwendyk, Peter ; Martin, David J. ; Pawih, Bernard ; Slade, Martin B. ; Smith, Graeme B.
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(1):13-50
Abstract by authors: In this paper the caves of Lukwi valley in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea are introduced. The caves were explored in January, May, and June 1985 at the request of Ok Tedi Mining Limited. Seventy seven karst features are described and are located on the surface map of the Lukwi valley. Surveys of the major caves are presented. Descriptions of the caves include geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biological observations. The quality of the Lukwi caves is assessed relative to other known caves in Papua New Guinea.
Includes: 17 figures, 10 photos, 12 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Drainage Evolution in a Tasmanian Glaciokarst
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(1):2-12
Abstract by author: The intensively glaciated mountains of the Picton Range - Mt. Bobs area in southwestern Tasmania contain prominent karst features that have been developed in carbonate formations of Devonian, Ordovician and possibly Precambrian age. This paper reviews the extent of the karst and glacial features and records the tracing of the underground drainage from the alpine Lake Sydney. Glacial erosion has exposed areas of limestone to karstification and glacial diversion of drainage has played a critical role in the evolution of the present underground drainage patterns. Prior to the late Last Glacial Stage the deflection of marginal meltwaters from the former Farmhouse Creek Glacier against the Burgess - Bobs Saddle led to the development of an underground breach of a major surface drainage divide. Subglacial or submarginal meltwaters associated with a much smaller glacier that developed in the same valley during the late Last Glacial Stage probably played a significant role in the breaching of a minor divide within the Farmhouse Creek catchment. This led to the development of an underground anabranch of Farmhouse Creek that by-passes the glacial Pine Lake. However, it is possible that the latter diversion is entirely Holocene in age and is related to postglacial dilation of the limestone rather than meltwater flows.
Includes: 1 figure, 22 refs
Keywords: Karst Geomorphology, Karst Hydrology, Glacial Geomorphology, Glaciation, Glaciokarstic Drainage Evolution.
Title: Wheres the Histo? Histoplasma in Chillagoe Caves area, North Queensland, Australia.
Authors: Carol, Eileen M.
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(2):26-36
Abstract by author: Ideal climatic and ecological conditions in many caves in the Chillagoe area suggest the existence of Histoplasma capsulatum. A study in progress proposes to identify those caves that may be reservoirs for the organism, thus presenting a potential health risk for cave visitors. Soil samples collected from caves containing bat and bird (swiftlet) populations are being processed by the Division of Mycotic Diseases, at the Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Preliminary results from 15 caves have been negative, thus a more precise technique will be utilised in further collections. Intradermal histoplasmin skin testing of cavers intends to identify the possibility of cave exploration as one source of Histoplasma capsulatum exposure.
Includes: 34 refs
Title: The Geomorphology of the Jenolan Caves Area
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988 , Helictite 26(2):6-21
Abstract by author: The Jenolan Caves occur in a small impounded fluviokarst developed in limestone of late Silurian age. This paper reviews present knowledge of the geomorphology of Jenolan. The surface and underground geomorphology has been strongly influenced by the lithology and structure of the limestone and the non-carbonate rocks that surround the karst. There is evidence in the present geomorphology of the inheritance of influences from palaeo landscapes. Abundant surficial and cave sediments reflect slope gradients and climatic conditions that have existed in the past. Despite the very limited size of the limestone outcrop there is a great variety in the karst, including many kilometres of underground passage and a range of cave morphologies and clastic and chemical sediments underground.
Includes: 3 figures, 28 refs
Title: The Source of the Jenolan River
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):39-42
Abstract by author: Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.
Includes: 10 refs
Title: Measurement of Small Changes in Pressure of Cave Air Using an Air Barometer
Authors: Halbert, Erik
Published: 1988 , Helictite 26(1):32-38
Abstract by author: This paper describes an extremely simple form of barometer which is capable of measuring changes in air pressure of less than five pascals. The principle of operation, construction and use are described and examples are given of its use both inside and outside the cave environment.
Includes: 2 tables, 2 figures, 9 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Mangroves, Mountains and Munching Molluscs: The Evolution of a Tropical Coastline
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):16-31
Abstract by author: The highly scenic Andaman coast of peninsular Thailand is locally dominated by steep limestone hills and karst towers that rise from broad alluvial plains, from mangrove swamps or from the sea. The karst terrain stretches north and west across the Malay peninsula to the Gulf of Siam. Some of the variations in the style of this karst have resulted from lithological and structural factors. However, steepening of the slopes by marine erosion at times of formerly high sea levels has probably been important to the development of the most spectacular part of this landscape. Notches and caves cut in limestone towers up to 10-15m above present sea level may represent the maximum transgression of the Last Interglacial. Morphological evidence hints that former shorelines may now lie hundreds of metres above present sea level due to diastrophic movements during the late Cainozoic. However, this evidence is equivocal and it has been argued that similar landforms in neighboring parts of Malaysia may be the result of terrestrial planation processes that operated independent of sea level during the Pleistocene glacial stages.
Includes: 1 figure, 5 photos, 72 refs
Title: An Investigation of the Mechanisms of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation on Straw Speleothems in Selected Karst Caves - Buchan, Victoria.
Authors: Canning, E.
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):3-15
Abstract by author: The relative significance of straw speleothem growth from evaporation and from CO2 degassing was determined in Lilli-Pilli and Moons Caves (Buchan, Victoria) from a seven-month study of cave climate and water chemistry. The relative importance of these two mechanisms was inferred from the calculation of the straw growth rates according to a degassing model and an evaporation model. The modelled straw growth rates from the carbon dioxide degassing model were on hundred to one thousand times those attributable to evaporation. A third model was used to calculate straw growth rates from the overall supersaturation of the water. Growth rates were found to be within the range of 0.01 to 0.07mm per annum.
Includes: 7 tables, 3 figures, 11 refs
Title: First Responder Care for Cave Accident Victims
Authors: Osborne, R.A.L. ; (read by) Steenson, R.
Published: 1987 , Helictite 25(2):82-87
Abstract by Osborne, R.A.L.: Although cave accidents are fairly rare events in New South Wales there is a need for Police, Ambulance and V.R.A. personnel to be aware of the problems presented by cave rescues and to be able to act should a cave accident occur. The N.S.W. Cave Rescue Group is available to provide advice and training in cave rescue and, in the event of an accident taking place, can be mobilised through the Police Disaster and Rescue Branch. Like most members of the caving community, the Cave Rescue Group is a largely Sydney based organisation and its response time for an authentic call out is likely to be between 3 to 5 (or even more) hours. In the event of a cave accident there will be a delay of at least an hour before initial reporting, (members of the victim's party must leave the cave and summon help, or a party is reported overdue). As caving areas are some distance from major centres the first responders are not likely to reach the accident scene in less than two hours after the accident has taken place. With some N.S.W. cave areas it is reasonable to assume that an accident victim may be 24 hours or more away from first responder care. It is vital that the first responders to a cave accident are aware of the type of acre required by cave accident victims and of the hazards that caves present.
Title: Wilderness Myths and Australian Caves
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):68-73
Abstract by author: Beyond a preliminary discussion of some of the basic issues in the writing of any history, the paper looks at what might be called 'Wilderness Myths' of Australian caves. Any wild place generates myths, and Australian caves have their share of these, which constitute the 'folk history' of caving areas (and often that of cave guides). It is argued that these are more-or-less systematic and are not simply the result of error or simple exaggeration in transmitting the story. Examples include myths about bottomless pits, blind fish, aboriginal-white conflict, bushrangers and popular heroes of cave discoveries (along with the interesting result that non-heroes are neglected or even completely forgotten). Wilderness myths present two issues to the would-be historian : what actual events contributed to them and what does their evolution as myths mean?
Includes: 1 table, 18 refs
Title: In Cave Oxidation of Organic Carbon and the Occurrence of Rainwater Inflow Cave Systems in the Seasonally Arid Lowland Tropics
Authors: Williamson, Kerry A.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):61-67
Abstract by author: Recent studies have shown that in cave oxidation of organic carbon can play a significant role in cave initiation and development. The production and flux of organic carbon in different seasonally arid and tropical karsts and in perpetually humid tropical karst is described, with particular consideration of the role of large particle size organic carbon. The model developed is used to explain the extent of rainwater inflow cave development and the apparent scarcity of such forms in the perpetually humid tropics plus arrested development in the seasonally arid sub-tropics.
Includes: 2 figures, 2 tables, 31 refs
Keywords: Seasonally arid tropical karst, less vegetated seasonally arid karst, pinnacled and griked karsts of the perpetually humid tropics
Title: 1987 S.U.S.S. Expedition to Mt. Anne
Authors: Hobbs, Derek ; Larkin, Patrick
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):59-60
Abstract by authors: Sydney University Speleological Society (S.U.S.S.) is running a three week, 15 person expedition to the Mt. Martha area in Tasmania. Th expedition began on January 4th, 1987.
Includes: 1 ref
Title: The Australian Speleological Expeditions to Thailand 1985-1986
Authors: Dunkley, John ; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):58
Abstract by authors: Two expeditions of 6 and 10 persons plus local logistical support visited Thailand in May 1985 and April-May 1986. A total of about 12km of new cave was discovered and over 20km of surveying carried out. The two longest caves on the mainland of South-East Asia, Tham Nam Mae Lena and Tham Nam Lang each reached 8.4km. These two caves aggregate 14km of superb stream passage, exploration of which was undertaken and some significant archaeological sites requiring further investigation were located. During the period 1983-1986 six expeditions visited the previously unreported karst and caves of Nam Khong basin in north-west Thailand. Two of these were moderately large endeavours: in 1985 six cavers spent 9 days in the field, in 1986 10 members were 18 days in the north-west and a further 10 in central and South Thailand. Exploration and surveying has been the main theme of the expeditions. About 100 caves have been explored, and a total of nearly 26km of caves surveyed. A scientific research program commenced in 1986, covering geology, geomorphology and archaeology and we expect this to continue in future years. One paper has been published, three more are in press or preparation, and we have completed a 62-page report on the expedition.
Title: The Restoration of the Jewel Casket, Yallingup Cave, W.A.
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):54-57
Abstract by author: During the September school holidays 1985, vandals extensively damaged the Jewel Casket, one of the centre-pieces of the Yallingup tourist cave. Some of the broken pieces were stolen. This paper describes the restoration of the remaining pieces.
Title: Mount Etna Caves: The Fight to Save Mount Etna Caves from Limestone Mining
Authors: Vavryn, Josef M. C.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):47-50
Abstract by author: This treatise is a record of the dates and events, heavily condensed, of the history of Mount Etna since The Caves area was first settled. I hope to show that since the fight to save Mount Etna was first joined, seriously, in 1964 or there about, that the Central Queensland Company and the Queensland Government has had no intention to voluntarily release Mount Etna from limestone mining. Even in the event that conservationists took the Queensland Government to court, the Government had plans prepared to counter such. That was clearly shown when the government rescinded the Recreation Reserve, R444, on Mount Etna and refused to give a fiat to prosecute the Government. The next event, the passing of a law stating that any mining lease inadvertently granted illegally will now stand and be legal, was aimed at the mining lease granted illegally including Mount Etna. At this point in time there is very little that is being done to save Mount Etna. I hope that this paper will create new interest and revive the flagging "Fight to Save Mount Etna", with input from ASF member societies and individuals. If the treatise does not have the desired effect of renewing interest in the fight, and if the Central Queensland Cement Co. Pty. Ltd. Starts mining the main cavernous northern face of Mount Etna, the next ASF conference, or possibly the following, will have a "Letter of Requiem" read to them. If the Australian Public can save the "Gordon-below-Franklin" area and the "Lindeman Island National Park", surely something can be done for Mount Etna.
Includes: 2 refs
Title: The Cleanup of Weebubbie Cave
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):43-46
Abstract by author: For many years Weebubbie Cave had been used as a water resource. This utilisation ceased somewhere around 1984. Although the active pump and piping were removed, the debris of previous exploiters remained. The description is given of the methods employed to remove the debris based on experience gained from an earlier cleanup in the Yallingup tourist cave. Weebubbie Cave 6N-2 is a large collapse doline located on the Hampton Tableland of the vast Nullabor Plain some 14km north of Eucla near the Western Australian border. The region is arid with an average rainfall of 125mm per year, although it has been known to fall (all) in one day. With summer temperatures sometimes reaching to 50 degree C, water is essential for survival. The predominating vegetation of saltbush and bluebush is well suited as stock feed.
Title: Sport and Scout Caving - The Present Dilemma
Authors: Crabb, Evalt
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):39-42
Abstract by author: This paper traces the evolution of organised caving as a post World War 2 phenomenon, and the changes in practice and attitude that have occurred. These practices are contrasted against stated behavioural codes. Parallel to this, the development of caving as a scouting activity is discussed, with reference to the general principles and practices of scouting. The author has been working toward evolving policies and practices within scouting which are consistent with the needs of conservation and the underlying philosophies of scouting. Implementation of these attitudes in one area is fully detailed, with some comment on the success and acceptability of the program. This training program is contrasted against the foreshadowed N.S.W. Branch Policy on Rock-Related Activities. The sequential discussion highlights some weaknesses within clubs and A.S.F., particularly in our methods of communication. There are no firm proposals, but possible directions for future discussions are indicated. It is the intention of this paper to give a historical perspective to some of the present perceived conflicts; in reality, the only conflict is between our oft-expressed aim of conservation of caves (i.e. safeguard the karst heritage of Australia), and our visible activity - use of caves for recreational activity. Both the intensity of expression of our concern, and lessening of self-constraint on recreational activity have greatly magnified with time; we are fast approaching a 'crossroads' scenario where our credibility is at great risk.
Title: Deposition of Tufa on Ryans and Stockyard Creeks, Chillagoe Karst, North Queensland: The Role of Evaporation
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):30-35
Abstract by author: A spring which feeds Ryans and Stockyard Creeks west of Cillagoe, was examined in order to understand the circumstances producing extensive deposits of tufa in the stream channels. The spring water was found to be of considerable hardness (300 ppm total carbonates) and to emerge only very slightly supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Both saturation levels rose very rapidly during the first 150 m of subaerial flow, as did pH and water temperature. In contrast to the reported behaviour of other limestone springs, carbonate hardness at this site does not decrease monotonically downstream, but rather locally undergoes significant increases. In particular, magnesium hardness at 1 km downstream is more than 4 times its value at the spring. These phenomena are explained in terms of evaporative concentration of the dissolved carbonates and in terms of possible chemical changes associated with the mixture of waters having contrasting characteristics at channel and pool sites along the streams.
Includes: 2 figures, 1 table, 10 refs
Title: Observations on the Buchan Karst During High Flow Conditions
Authors: Finlayson, Brian ; Ellaway, Mark
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):21-29
Abstract by authors: In late July 1984 heavy rain at Buchan in East Gippsland produced widespread flooding and activated the dry valley network and vadose cave system on the Buchan limestones. The heavy rainfall was caused by the movement southwards along the New South Wales coast of a low pressure centre which originated in southeast Queensland. Intensity - frequency - duration analysis of the rainfall event indicates that while the 24 hour fall on the day the flooding occurred had a recurrence interval of only 1.75 years, the 96 hour and the 120 hour duration had recurrence intervals of 3.8 and 8.0 years respectively. The flood peak in the Buchan River had a recurrence interval of 4.3 years. These analyses indicate that the dry valleys and vadose cave systems are hydrologically active quite frequently under present climatic conditions. Water quality observations were made on surface streams and springs in the Buchan area during the flood and the results are compared with similar data collected under low flow conditions.
Includes: 5 figures, 3 tables, 15 refs
Title: An Annotated Speleological Bibliography of Oceania
Authors: Bourke, R. Michael
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):3-20
Abstract by author: A preliminary annotated speleological bibliography is presented for Oceania. The region covered extends from Irian Jaya (Indonesia) in the west to the Galapagos Islands (Equador) in the east. There are 268 references given from the following countries and territories: Antarctica, Belau, Cook Islands, Easter Island, Fiji, French Polynesia, Galapagos Island, Guam, Irian Jaya, Marian Islands, New Caledonia, Niue, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Wallis and Futuna.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 268 refs
Title: The Historical Construction of Naracoorte Caves
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):60-64
Abstract by author: This paper will focus upon the role of Reddan and Leitch, who between them were responsible for some 59 years of the first 62 years of cave management at Naracoorte. Those who seek a more comprehensive narrative of events, both prior to the first reservation and since, should consult the Draft Management Plan document (S.A. : National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1986).
Includes: 2 photos, 5 refs
Title: Themes in Prehistory of the Nullarbor Caves, Semi-Arid Southern Australia
Authors: Davey, Adrian
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):53-59
Abstract by author: The 200,000 square kilometre Nullarbor Plain is a largely and relatively inhospitable tract of semi-arid land on the southern coast of Australia. It is also one of the world's largest and probably oldest karst landscapes. It contains a substantial number of caves, some of them very large. The sheer size of the plain together with its lack of surface water have made it a powerful ecological, physical and psychological barrier to the dispersal of evolving plants and animals and to human trade, settlement and communications. Because the plain is otherwise easily perceived as featureless, the more obvious of the caves have played an unusually prominent part in human exploration and occupation of the region. Aboriginal prehistory of cave exploration and use extends over many millenia. Two themes are especially interesting: quarrying underground as one of the earliest, and the role of water and shade in an inhospitable environment as the most persistent. The advent of European, Afghan and other cultures on this part of the southern coastline during the last four centuries has diversified the relevant historic themes. Victorian British discovery and exploration is the first stage in modern recognition of the caves, although long after the region was first discovered. The next and perhaps most remarkable phase brings together developments in Australian aviation and the adaptation of a grounded mariner to the land and air. Eventually the action moves on to the development of organised speleology. Other sub-themes in human interactions with the caves in this large waterless area include what may turn out to be either art or vandalism. They also include attempted grand solutions to the problem of water, by improbable engineering, as well as adventures of tourism, recreation and science.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo, 44 refs
Title: The History of Wombeyan Caves 1828-1985
Authors: Chalker, Mike ; Nurse, B. S.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):47-52
Abstract by authors: It is possible that the Wombeyan area was known to squatters before its first recorded discovery by white men in 1828. It was certainly known to the aboriginal tribe of the area, and had a place in its dreamtime. The Arch and surrounding area would be regarded as a sacred site if any of the aboriginal tribe were alive today.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo
Title: An Introduction to Abercrombie Caves Resort
Authors: Treharne, M.J.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):43-46
Abstract by authors: Abercrombie Caves Resort is located near Trunk Road 54 South (Bathurst/Goulburn Road). The turn-off to the Caves may be found 71 kilometres South from Bathurst and 22 kilometres North of Goulburn.
Includes: 1 figure
Title: Paleontological Studies at Wellington Caves N.S.W.
Authors: Augee, Michael L.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):40-42
Abstract by author: There is no evidence that Aboriginal Australians entered or used Wellington Caves. However the very first record of the caves by European Man, a drawing made by Augustus Earle in 1826 or 1827, illustrates aboriginals just outside the entrance to Cathedral Cave. That may of course simply be artistic embellishment, and it is not absolutely certain that the picture is Cathedral Cave entrance as Earle refers to it as "Mosman's Cave in the Wellington Valley". No other use of that name is known. So credit for the first reference to Wellington Caves is usually given to the explorer Hamilton Hume from an entry in his diary for December 1828. The first reference to the rich fossil deposits in the Wellington Cave System appeared shortly thereafter in the form of a letter to the Sydney Gazette dated 25 May 1830 from Mr George Rnaken of Bathurst (Lane and Richards 1963). Shortly thereafter Rnaken accompanied the colonial surveyor, Major Thomas Mitchell, to the Wellington Valley arriving in July 1830. Mitchell, realising the scientific value of the fossils, sent collections to Europe in 1830 and 1831. There they were examined by the leading scientists of the time, including Richard Owen in London and colleagues of Cuvier in Paris (the Baron having died in 1892) (Lane and Richards 1963, Foster, 1936). Modern paleontologists, beset by postal strikes and delays of several years in publication can take no joy from the fact that fossils from Wellington Caves, excavated in the second half of 1830, had been received in Europe, examined and referred to by Lyell in his classic "Principles of Geography" in 1833!
Includes: 1 photo, 7 refs
Title: Early History of Yarrangobilly Caves
Authors: Bilton, Gary
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):31-39
Abstract by author: To present my first ever paper to the first-ever seminar of spelean history in Australia is indeed a daunting, but challenging task. Present knowledge is scattered, to say the least, however it is my aim to present what is known from present resources with regard to the early history, and to reproduce some of the earliest photographs and maps of the area, some of which have never before been published. Hopefully this will provide impetus for a more systematic and detailed approach to future historical research on Yarrangobilly Caves. The history of the human occupation of Yarrangobilly Caves probably goes back thousands of years with increasing evidence of Aboriginal use becoming apparent. The Caves have been known to Europeans for around 150 years but the history of the early years is far from clear.
Includes: 1 figure, 5 photos, 26 refs
Title: Louis Guymer - Bungonia Caves First Cave Guide
Authors: Ellis, Ross ; Nurse, Ben
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):25-30
Abstract by authors: The caves are 9km from Bungonia Village which is 32km from Goulburn or 16km from Marulan and are situated on a plateau bounded by the Shoalhaven River and Bungonia Creek. Bungonia Caves were originally in Bungonia Caves Reserve administered by the N.S.W. Dept. of Lands. In 1974 the Reserve became Bungonia State Recreation Area. In 1980 all State Recreation Areas were transferred to the National Parks and Wildlife Service. The area is administered by a Trust responsible to the Minister for Planning and Development.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo, 44 refs
Title: Jenolan Caves - Heritage and History
Authors: Dunkley, John R.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):21-24
Abstract by author: My aim today is not to talk about the history of Jenolan Caves as such, but rather to suggest the contribution an understanding of its history can make to the heritage significance of Jenolan, what part can it play in attracting visitors and making their visit worthwhile. There are some implications here for those of you interested in the history of other cave areas. I would like to start by reading the first few sentences in the official guidebook to Jenolan Caves : "Jenolan Caves is Australia's show-place and premier tourist resort of its kind. It is a wild, yet easily and pleasantly accessible spot found in a forest and mountain reserve, and its limestone cave scenery is the best that can be found in a country richly endowed with caves ... the caves are visited by many thousands of tourists each year and have a record of steady progress in fame and popularity that can be accounted for only by great merit". Well, what is it that makes for this great merit? Ask an average member of the public, even an environmentally conscious one, and the reply would most likely emphasise Jenolan's great beauty and magnificence.
Includes: 1 photo
Title: Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves
Authors: Targett, Warren
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):20
Abstract by author: The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.
Includes: 2 refs
Title: Spelean History in Australia; A Preliminary Review
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):13-19
Abstract by author: The first ever seminar on spelean history in this country constitutes something of a milestone, and so this paper is written as a state-of-the-art review of what has happened and is happening in Australian speleo-history. Hopefully, others will be able to add important data which are at present unknown to me. I would also hope that the near future will see enough further study to make this paper out of date anyway.
Includes: 76 refs
Title: The History of Cave Studies
Authors: Shaw, Trevor R.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):3-12
Abstract by author: The purpose of this paper is to set the overall scene for those that follow. Its aim is to provide a context for the ones dealing specifically with cave work in Australia. It examines the ways in which cave studies have developed elsewhere in the world, in different circumstances and under different constraints. There is not space here to consider the growth of ideas on speleogenesis, karst hydrology, the formation of speleothems, and the more 'scientific' aspects of the subject (Shaw, 1979). Discussion is therefore limited to progress in cave exploration and recording. Also, because of its impact on the serious study of caves, the growth of the general public's awareness of caves is touched upon. Interest in caves and the amount known about them has increased like so many things at an increasing rate, largely because after a certain stage existing knowledge aided subsequent work. For many centuries though, indeed for most of recorded history, this use of previous knowledge did not occur and explorations if they took place at all, were sporadic. It is convenient to divide cave history into four periods: a) the prehistory of cave exploration : to c.1000 B.C. b) isolated expeditions : c.1000 B.C. - c.1650 A.D. c) explorations making use of published information : c.1650 - 1878 d) explorations by cave societies : 1879 - date
Includes: 2 figures, 8 photos, 49 refs
Title: Abstract: Diving at Cocklebiddy Cave
Authors: Allum, Ron
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: Cocklebiddy Cave (Western Australia) lies 200km west of the South Australian border on the Nullarbor Plain. It is mostly waterfilled and represents the world's longest cave dive. In September1982 an Australian diving expedition had increased the known length to 4.3km. This was extended to 5.85km in 1983 by the French expedition led by F. Leguen, using motorised underwater scooters and lightweight equipment. The French party regarded the prospects for further extension as poor, since the hitherto wide passage had become rather constricted. The following month, October 1983, a team consisting of Hugh Morrison, Ron Allum and Peter Rogers with 11 supporting divers made a further attempt on the cave using only manual power. They established a camp at Toad Hall, a large air-filled chamber 4.3km into the cave, and dived from there to the constriction which had stopped the French team. From this point Hugh Morrison continued using only one air cylinder, and continued a further 240m. He was stopped only by shortage of air. The explored length of Cocklebiddy now stands at 6.09km, and the only barrier of further exploration is the logistic problem of carrying air cylinders through the constriction. (The full text of this paper is in Australian Caver No.109, pp 2-5, "Cocklebiddy, Australia - World's Longest Cave Dive")
Title: Abstract: Benua Cave, Keriaka Plateau, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Wood, Ian D.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: Benua Cave is situated in the Keriaka Limestone plateau above the west coast of Bougainville Island. It was first reported by pilots during World War II and first visited speleologically by Fred Parker in 1963. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group made a three day visit to the cave in order to make an accurate survey. The cave consists of a single chamber, 470m along its longest length with a maximum width of 150m and height of 170m. A river estimated at 3 m3.s-1 rises at the foot of a 100m sheer wall and flows out of the entrance. The cave contains an 18m tall stalagmite of impressive proportions. Side passages can be seen at high level but would require mechanical aids to reach. (The full text of this paper will appear in Australian Caver)
Title: Abstract: Anglo-Australian Expedition to the Gunnung Sewu Karst, Java, Indonesia
Authors: Tyson, Wayne
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: In August 1984, six members of the Western Australia Speleological Group joined six members of the Kingswood Caving Group (U.K.) in Java, and with the assistance of the Federation of Indonesian Speleological Activities explored and mapped approximately 20km of cave passage in a period of three weeks. Many large river passages were found and a fair mixture of vertical and horizontal systems. The highlight of the expedition was the discovery of Luwang Jaran (Horse Pot) which was surveyed for 11km with many leads still going. This is now the longest cave in Indonesia. Six other caves over 1km long were found. The potential for further exploration in Java is enormous, despite bureaucratic difficulties. A return expedition is planned for 1983.
Title: Abstract: Water Tube Levelling
Authors: Smith, N. I.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):58
Abstract by author: Vertical relationships within predominantly horizontal cave systems have traditionally been determined by measuring vertical angles with a clinometer. However, this system can lead to large errors over long traverses. It is unsuitable for purposes such as determining relative levels in superimposed passage systems where there is no short connecting path. The principle of levelling using a water-filled tube is well known - the water surfaces at the two ends of the tube will assume the same level when the tube is open to the atmosphere. A number of refinements to the apparatus are necessary to make the system practical for cave surveying. This paper described the levelling equipment developed by the Cave Exploration Group of South Australia and reports on some of the practical experience gained with it in Mullamullang Cave, 6N-37. (The full text of this paper is in Australian Caver No. 109, pp 10-13)
Title: Caving Potential of Australian Aeolian Calcarenite
Authors: White, Susan
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):56-58
Abstract by author: Although Australia is limited in karst areas by world standards, the extensive areas of aeolian calcarenite (dune limestone) are often ignored by cavers. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of aeolian calcarenite karst in Australia and discusses its caving potential.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 refs
Title: Australian Aquatic Cavernicolous Amphipods
Authors: Knott, Brenton
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):51-55
Abstract by author: The purpose of this paper is to acquaint speleologists with preliminary results of recent researches into the amphipodan fauna from aquatic ecosystems of Australian caves, with particular reference to Western Australia. Attention is focussed particularly on the systematic and zoogeographic significance of this fauna.
Includes: 19 refs
Title: Cave to Surface Communications
Authors: Allum, Ron
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):46-50
Abstract by author: The reasons for needing a cave to surface communication system are many, including safety, search and rescue, surveying, science, exploration and commentary. Ideally a unit should be lightweight, portable, robust, easy to operate, have adequate range and be able to communicate speech intelligibly in both directions. The unit described here was designed specifically for use on the 1983 Cocklebiddy Cave expedition. When considering design parameters for a communication system there are many limitations, but in a cave as large as Cocklebiddy these can be less of a restriction. The unit as used does not meet all of the above criteria as an ideal system for all caves, but it worked well in Cocklebiddy Cave, conveying our speech intelligibly with tolerable noise and interference levels.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 refs
Title: Survey and Mapping Techniques at Chillagoe, North Queensland
Authors: Smith, Neil I.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):39-45
Abstract by author: Some characteristics of the Chillagoe Caves in North Queensland are briefly described and a short history is given of the types of survey and mapping work performed. "Perimeter Surveys" around the karst towers are important contributions to speleology in the area. The reasons for this are discussed, and some work done in 1983 using theodolite techniques is described. A worthwhile improvement in accuracy has been achieved. Some examples of recent maps are included.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 refs
Title: A Survey Data Reduction Program Aid for Radio Direction Finding Work
Authors: Martin, D. J.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):27-32
Abstract by author: A computer program that calculates the horizontal distance, magnetic bearing and difference in elevation between the current point on a survey traverse and a specified end point is described. It has been designed to assist in the survey location of surface points designated for radio direction finding work in difficult terrain. The program has been adapted from a conventional cave survey data reduction program and is suitable for field use on a hand-held microcomputer.
Includes: 4 figures, 4 refs
Title: Histoplasmosis and Australian Cave Environments
Authors: Harden, T. J. ; Hunt, P. J.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):23-26
Abstract by authors: Histoplasma Capsulatum is a fungus which is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, a disease of worldwide distribution. The prevalence of this disease and its manifestation in clinical cases of disease in humans are described. The association of this fungus with dung enriched soil is discussed, particularly in relation to caves which are frequented by colonial bats. Histoplasma capsulatum has been associated on several occasions with the respiratory form of Histoplasmosis in Australia but has only been isolated from the Church Cave. It is suggested that although Histoplasma capsulatum in Australia has been found in association with only Miniopterus schreibersii, other genera of bats may also harbour this fungus.
Includes: 25 refs
Title: Karst and Caves of the Nam Lang - Nam Khong Region, North Thailand
Authors: Dunkley, John
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):3-22
Abstract by author: The Nam Lang - Nam Khong Karst Region, located in a thinly populated, remote part of Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand, comprises about 1,000km2 of massive Permian limestone. Over much of the area is developed a characteristic polygonal karst dominated by over 3,000 depressions, with an assemblage of forms including dolines, uvalas, poljes, streamsinks, through caves, springs and blind valleys. Speleological exploration commenced only in 1983 and the major discovery is the Tham Nam Lang, the longest cave reported on the mainland of south-east Asia with nearly 7km of passages. Cave development is strongly influenced by regional strike and fault orientation and by base level incision into impermeable sediments underlying the limestone. The largest caves are formed where aggressive water collects on impervious rocks before entering the limestone. Elsewhere cave development is limited. Several caves are important archaeological sites, and a number have tourist potential.
Includes: 6 figures, 2 tables, 6 photos, 27 refs
Title: Spider Cave, Jenolan - A Fault Controlled System
Authors: Cox, Guy ; Welch, Bruce
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(2):43-53
Abstract by authors: Spider Cave is an influent cave, representing one stage in the progressive capture of the surface flow of the Jenolan River by a cave system. It consists principally of a rarely-active inlet passage, largely of phreatic form, which descends to join the large passage carrying the Jenolan Underground River. Both the position and the form of the inlet passage have been strongly influenced by the presence of a fault, which has also influenced the course of the surface river, and given rise to a large cliff - Frenchmans Bluff. The fault-line has also affected the development of the main underground riverway.
Includes: 3 figures, 8 photos, 12 refs
Title: Determination of the Causes of Air Flow in Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly
Authors: Michie, N. A.
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):21-30
Abstract by author: Observations of air flow through Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly, are reported. A model is presented of the cave as a two entrance system with air flow dominated by air density differentials with little sensitivity to surface wind. The measurement technique and data analysis are described.
Includes: 22 figures, 18 refs
Title: A Preliminary Survey of Water Chemistry in the Limestone of the Buchan Area Under Low Flow Conditions
Authors: Ellaway, Mark ; Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):11-20
Abstract by authors: Water samples from selected sites in the Buchan area were collected on two different occasions (survey 1 and survey 2) in an preliminary attempt to characterise the samples taken in terms of chemical composition. Chemical constituents such as Ca++, Mg++, and titration alkalinity (as mg/l CaCO3) varied considerably and ranged from 9.0 - 187.0 mg/l, 2.5 - 43.3 mg/l and 27 - 417 mg/l (survey 1) and 3.5 - 188.7 mg/l, 3.5 - 40.0 mg/l and 44 - 424 mg/l (survey 2) respectively. This range in values is attributed to the differing lithology of the sample sites chosen and reflects the geological control on water chemistry of karst landscapes. A computer program for determining equilibrium speciation of aqueous solutions was used to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 tables, 2 surveys, 19 refs
Title: The Origin of the Kelly Hill Caves, Kangaroo Island, S.A.
Authors: Hill, A. L.
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):6-10
Abstract by author: The Kelly Hill caves in soft, homogenous, extremely porous dune limestone differ markedly in morphology from those in the more usual, dense, bedded limestones. Solution occurs at depth with great lateral spread through swamps overflowing into the base of the hill. Development occurs by roof breakdown as areas of solution become so large that the roof cannot support the weight; a theory of the mechanics is presented. Domes and tunnels of collapse rise above the watertable; at maturity there are isolated infalls from the surface. Water percolating down from the surface only builds secondary calcite deposits.
Includes: 4 figures, 5 refs
Title: Prediction of Climatic Temperature Data for Karst Areas in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales
Authors: Halbert, Erik J. M.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(2):55-63
Abstract by author: The use of multiple regression analysis is shown to overcome current limitations in availability of climatic temperature data for caving sites in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. The developed equations are used to calculate climatic data for Jenolan, Wellington, and Oberon which agree well with recorded data at these sites. The equations are also used to calculate data for six major caving areas in New South Wales, including the tourist areas Wombeyan and Yarrangobilly and frequently visited areas such as Bungonia and Wee Jasper.
Includes: 4 figures, 5 tables, 12 refs
Title: Further Studies At The Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part II, Water Chemistry And Discussion
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(2):35-54
Abstract by author: The 1969-77 data confirm that groundwater temperature is significantly higher than air temperature at mean catchment altitude but provide only partial support for an explanation in terms of soil temperature and insulation of drainage from cold air ponding over the Plain. Higher pH of output than input streams is attributed mainly to percolation water chemistry. Water chemistry of two contrasted input streams suggests non-karst rock weathering has an important effect on allogenic input streams. An inverse relationship between carbonate hardness and output discharge is found again and attributed mainly to faster transit through the limestone at high flows. Summer has a steeper regression than winter due to precipitation and high flows depressing carbon dioxide and carbonate concentrations more in that season than in winter. Picknett graphs show how solutional capacity varies through the hydrologic system, with aggressive input streams, mainly saturated percolation water, and rarely saturated output springs because of the allogenic component in the last. The total carbonate load of Cave Creek is directly related to discharge, with little seasonal difference so the annual regression is chosen for later calculation. When the carbonate load duration curve and frequency classes for Cave Creek are compared with those for other karsts, it falls into an intermediate class in which neither very high nor low flows dominate the pattern. This is attributed to a combination of a large allogenic input with a complex routing pattern. Consideration of most input stream solute concentration on one occasion indicates such close dependence on catchment geology that doubt is cast on the smallness of the 1965-9 allocation of carbonate contribution from non-karst rock weathering to the allogenic input. This is explained by new CSIRO rainfall chemistry figures from the Yass R. catchment which are smaller than those used before and by elimination of a previous error in calculation. This time subtraction of atmospheric salts is done on a daily basis with a decaying hyperbolic function. Correction of Cave Creek output for allogenic stream input follows the method adopted in 1965-9 but on a firmer basis, with the assumption of approximately equal water yeild per unit area from the non-karst and karst parts of the catchment being more factually supported than before. It remains a substantial correction. The correction for subjacent karst input to Cave Creek is also improved by putting the calculation in part on a seasonal basis; it remains small. The exposed solute load output shows the same seasonal pattern as was determined earlier, with a winter/spring maximum, and it again evinced much variation from year to year. So did annual rates. The mean annual loss of 29 B was slightly greater than for 1965-9. If this difference is real and not an experimental error, the reduced allowance for atmospheric salts and greater annual rainfall in the second period could explain the increase. This erosion rate of 29 B from an annual runoff of about 400mm places this karst where it would be expected in the world pattern of similar determinations in terms of both runoff and its proximity to the soil covered/bare karst dichotomy of Atkinson and Smith (1976). Combined with the other work at Cooleman Plain on erosion at specific kinds of site, an estimate of the spatial distribution of the limestone solution is presented. It agrees well with the similar attempt for Mendip by Atkinson and Smith (1976), when allowance is made for certain differences in method and context. The main conclusions are the great role of solution in the superficial zone and the unimportance of the contribution from caves. Conflict between this process study and the geomorphic history of Cooleman Plain remains and once again an explanation is sought in long persistence of a Tertiary ironstone cover inhibiting surface solution.
Includes: 7 figures, 10 tables, 45 refs
Title: Taylor Creek Silcrete Cave, North of Melbourne, Central Victoria
Authors: Webb, J.A. ; Joyce, E.B.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):25-32
Abstract by authors: Taylor Creek Cave is formed within sediments of the Red Bluff Sand, a Pliocene unit overlain by Newer Volcanics. The cave consists of a single low chamber, 12m long and 5m wide, that has been excavated in friable sandstone under a resilient silcrete roof; it has formed by an unusual combination of piping and stream erosion. Taylor Creek initially exposed the silcrete surface, then piping below the silcrete caused tunnel formation in the sandstone. Collapse of overlying material into this tunnel captured Taylor Creek, causing it to flow beneath the silcrete and thereby enlarge the cave to its present size.
Includes: 5 figures, 19 refs
Title: Mechanical Testing and Evaluation of Screw-Links
Authors: Martin, D. J.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):21-24
Abstract by author: Screw-Links (maillon rapides) are an item of equipment which may be used as an alternative to karabiners in some caving situations. The gate design of a screw-link gives it several advantages over the karabiner. The results of testing of some screw links which are sold in Australia are presented. Some recommendations as to their suitability for caving use are given.
Includes: 1 figure, 3 tables, 2 photos, 4 refs
Title: Further Studies at the Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part I, Climate and Hydrology
Authors: Jennings, J. N.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):3-20
Abstract by author: Previous study of the temporal and spatial distribution of limestone solution at Cooleman Plain rested on monthly discharges and water analyses of the Blue Waterholes over 4 years. For this study automatic recording of discharge (8 years), rainfall (8 years), evaporation (7 years) and temperature (4 years) was attended by variable success in the face of interference, rigorous climate and inaccessibility. The most important aspect of the climatic data was the support obtained for the earlier assumption of similar water balances in the forested igneous frame and the grassland limestone plain. Runoff was again shown to be highly variable from year to year and to have an oceanic pluvial regime, with a summer-autumn minimum owing much to evapo-transpiration. The flow duration curve from daily discharges puts this karst amongst those where neither extremely high nor low flows are important. The stream routing pattern offsets the effect of 71% of the catchment being on non-karst rocks, damping flood events. An inflection of 700 l/s in a flow duration plot based on discharge class means is interpreted as the threshold at which surface flow down North Branch reaches the Blue Waterholes. Storages calculated from a generalised recession hydrograph parallel Mendip data where baseflow (fissure) storage provides most of the storage and quickflow (vadose) storage only a secondary part. Water-filled conduit storage (the phreas) could not be determined but is considered small. The baseflow storage seems large, suggesting that it can develop independently of caves in some measure. A quickflow ratio for floods derived by Gunn's modification of the Hewlett and Hibbert separation line method appears relatively low for a mainly non-karst catchment and is again attributed to the routing pattern. For analysis of variation of the solute load over time, estimates of daily discharge during gaps in the record where made for the author by Dr. A.J. Jakeman and Mr. M.A. Greenaway (see Appendix). A small number of discharge measures of two contrasted allogenic catchments of the igneous frame shows a unit area yield close to that for the whole catchment. Together with the guaging of most of the allogenic inputs, this supports the idea that the water yield is much the same from the forested ranges and the grassland plain. This is important for the estimation of limestone removal rates.
Includes: 11 figures, 4 tables, 1 appendix, 4 refs
Title: Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Data in Cave Atmospheres using the Gibbs Triangle and the Cave Air Index
Authors: Halbert, Erik J. M.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):60-68
Abstract by author: Water Vapour determines the volume percentage of component gases in cave atmospheres. This is particularly significant in foul air caves where carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations are measured and used to diagnose foul air types. The variation in atmospheric composition brought about by systematic change in carbon dioxide and oxygen levels is examined and shown on the Gibbs triangle. The current three foul air types are readily identifiable in this visualisation of data, and the boundaries of these types are mapped. Further, these diverse data can be combined into a Cave Air Index by which foul air atmospheres may be assigned to type in a rapid and objective manner. The use of these concepts in evaluation of published data on Wellington and Bungonia Caves and with mine and soil data is shown.
Includes: 4 figures, 3 tables, 1 appendix, 28 refs
Title: Granite Caves in Girraween National Park, South-East Queensland
Authors: Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):53-59
Abstract by author: Four caves and two underground streams in granite occur within the Girraween National Park. Only two of these sites have previously been reported. They mainly occur on the margins of major joints in the granite where streams descend into troughs along the joints. The caves are themselves formed in minor joints. In some cases streams have worked their way down from the surface along a joint but at three of the sites streams flow through horizontal joints in the granite which have not been opened from the surface. For these sites it is not clear how the initial passage was opened up underground. The two possible mechanisms suggested here are solution and joint opening following pressure release. The cave morphology clearly indicates that once the path flow is open, abrasion becomes the major process. Flowstone terraces, 'cave coral', and cemented gravels are found in the caves. The speleothems and the cement are amorphous silica (Opal A). Caves in granite may be more common than was previously thought.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 photos, 11 refs
Title: Principles and Problems in Reconstructing Karst History
Authors: Jennings, J. N.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):37-52
Abstract by author: Principles and problems in the reconstruction of karst history, apart from methods of absolute dating, are discussed and illustrated on the basis of Australian examples as far as possible, but with recourse to overseas where necessary. Relict, buried, exhumed and subjacent components, and compound histories are considered. Connotations for the less consistently employed terms, fossil karst and palaeokarst, are recommended.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 photos, 69 refs
Title: Metastrengite in Loniu Cave, Manus Island
Authors: Francis, G.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):29-31
Abstract by author: The unusual occurrence of the mineral metastrengite (FePO4.2H2O) in a cave on Manus Island is described. Its formation is attributed to the interaction of biogenic materials containing phosphates and ferruginous sediments derived from insoluble residues in the limestone bedrock.
Includes: 1 figure, 9 refs
Title: Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites
Authors: Goede, A. ; Green, D.C. ; Harmon, R.S.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):17-28
Abstract by authors: Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.
Includes: 9 figures, 5 tables, 12 refs
Title: Glaciation and Karst in Tasmania: Review and Speculations
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1) 11-16
Abstract by author: The evolution of Tasmanian karsts is fundamentally interwoven with the history of Quaternary climatic change. Specifically karstic processes were periodically overwhelmed by the influence of cold climate which exerted strong controls over thermal, hydrological and clastic regimes. While these episodes of cold climatic conditions have temporally dominated the Quaternary, their legacy may be under represented in present karst landforms. There is no general case with respect to the consequences for karst of the superimposition or close proximity of glacial ice. The pattern of events in each area will be dependant upon the interaction between local and zonal factors. A number of Tasmanian karst which may have been influenced by glaciation are briefly discussed.
Includes: 2 figures, 32 refs
Title: Colour In Some Nullarbor Plain Speleothems
Authors: Caldwell, J.R. ; Davey, A.G. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Spate, A.P.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):3-10
Abstract by authors: Chemical and mineralogical analyses of 18 speleothem samples from Nullarbor Plain caves are related to their colours ranging from white to black through browns and reds. Iron, manganese and organic compounds are the pigments responsible but their effect is variable according to their manner of incorporation in the speleothems and possibly also to the intervention of clay minerals. Closer studies are necessary to unravel these aspects and to investigate sequences of colour in speleothem growth.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 23 refs
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