Abstracts of Volume 30 (1992) to Volume 39 (2006)
Helictite - Journal of Australasian Speleological Research

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Abstracts of Volume 20 (1982) to Volume 29 (1991)
Abstracts of Volume 40 (2007) to Volume 48 (2023)

Abstracts appear in reverse order of publishing sequence.

Title: Syngenetic Karst in Australia: a review
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):27-38
Abstract by author: In syngenetic karst speleogenesis and lithogenesis are concurrent: caves and karst features are forming at the same time as the loose sediment is being cemented into a soft, porous rock. ''Eogenetic karst'' and ''soft-rock karst'' are closely related terms for features developed in soft, poorly-consolidated limestones. The distinctive features of syngenetic karst are: shallow horizontal cave systems; a general lack of directed conduits (low irregular chambers occur instead); clustering of caves at the margins of topographic highs or along the coast; paleosoil horizons; vertical solution pipes which locally form dense fields; extensive breakdown and subsidence to form collapse-dominated cave systems; a variety of surface and subsurface breccias and locally large collapse dolines and cenotes; and limited surface sculpturing (karren). These features are best developed in host sediments that have well developed primary matrix permeability and limited secondary cementation (and hence limited mechanical strength), for example dune calcarenites. Certain hydrological environments also assist: invading swamp waters or mixing at a well-developed watertable; or, near the coast, mixing at the top and bottom of a freshwater lens floating on salt water. Where these factors are absent the karst forms tend to be more akin to those of classical hard-rock or telogenetic karst.
Includes: 20 figures, 56 refs
Keywords: syngenetic karst, eogenetic diagenesis, soft-rock karst, dune calcarenite, solution pipes, Australia
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Title: Seasonal Karst Lake Cerknica (Slovenia) : 2000 Years of Man Versus Nature
Authors: KRANJC, Andrej
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):39-46
Abstract by author: The Roman geographer Strabo (63 BC - 21 AD) as probably the first to mention Lake Cerknica (Cerkniško Jezero) and the first printed record was published in 1537 (G. Leonberger). The early authors (16th - ­17th C.) just admired it. The next phase can be called the research one. Authors of the 18th century tried to explain the lake's hydrographic regime. With the rise of physiographic movements, the first proposals to change the regime, i.e. to dry up the lake, appeared. Many projects have been suggested; a lot of research and even some practical works were done until the middle of the 20th century. No project was fully implemented because of fear of flooding the capital, Ljubljana. After World War II, the situation changed. Instead of draining the lake, it was proposed to make the lake permanent. The first experiments were not successful and in the 1980s attitudes towards the lake changed. Green and environmental movements prevailed and work began to protect the lake as a natural phenomenon.
Includes: 8 figures, 27 refs
Keywords: polje, engineering works, karst research, history, Slovenia, Cerknica
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Title: Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine
Authors: YUNQIU, Xie ; CHENG, Zhang ; YONG, Lü ; ZHENPING, Deng
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):47-50
Abstract by authors: As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 7 refs
Keywords: karst, environmental reconstruction, Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, Donggangling Formation
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Title: Thinking about Karst and World Heritage
Authors: HAMILTON-SMITH, Elery
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):51-54
Abstract by author: Various aspects of the operation of the World Heritage Convention have been reviewed over the last several years. The actual inscription criteria and process have been changed to reduce the differences between natural and cultural sites. This may well be of benefit to those seeking recognition of karst sites as many such sites have both natural and cultural values. At the same time, every effort is being made to reduce the number of new inscriptions, while at the same time endeavoring to ensure that the list is balanced, representative and credible. Efforts are being made to establish frameworks to enable more adequate assessment of representivity, and this paper will propose and examine a potential framework for cave and karst sites.
Includes: 1 table, 9 refs
Keywords: karst, world heritage convention, assessment framework criteria
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Title: The first Australian record of subterranean guano-collecting ants
Authors: MOULDS, Timothy
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):3-4
Abstract by author: An arthropod community was found in guano of the inland cave bat (Vespadelus findlaysoni) roosting in the abandoned Eregunda mine, a 25 m adit located east of Blinman in the central Flinders Ranges, South Australia. This guano community is remarkable because meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus Smith) were observed to enter the mine, collect fresh guano, and carry it back to the nest. This opportunistic behaviour has not previously been reported in Australian or overseas hypogean guano communities. Bat guano is eaten directly by many guanobitic and guanophilic invertebrates as high nitrate food, or, more commonly the more readily digested glycogen rich bacteria and fungus are eaten. Although not strictly a cave, the lack of suitable bat roosts in nearby caves, and the stable environmental conditions present, make this site locally important as a representative hypogean guano arthropod community.
Includes: 1 figure, 7 refs
Keywords: Ant, biospeleology, Flinders Ranges, Formicidae, guano.
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Title: In Situ Taphonomic Investigation of Pleistocene Large Mammal Bone Deposits from The Ossuaries, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia
Authors: REED, Elizabeth H.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):5-15
Abstract by author: The Ossuaries within the Victoria Fossil Cave (5U-1) contain a large, virtually untouched deposit of Pleistocene vertebrates. Discovered in the early 1970s, the chamber has been left unexcavated as a 'reference' section of the cave and contains taphonomic features analogous to the formation of other large deposits such as the Fossil Chamber. This paper presents the results of an in situ taphonomic investigation of large mammal fossils from The Ossuaries. The results suggest The Ossuaries acted as a pitfall trap for a range of large Pleistocene mammals, in particular kangaroos. Once accumulated, the skeletons of these animals were subject to burial and dispersal by water and modification by trampling and termite gnawing. The presence of articulated material suggests many animals survived their initial fall, only to wander further into the cave and perish at some distance from the entrance.
Includes: 5 figures, 3 tables, 13 refs
Keywords: karst, cave, taphonomy, palaeontology, mammal, Pleistocene.
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Title: A small cave in a basalt dyke, Mt. Fyans, Victoria, Australia
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):17-20
Abstract by author: A small but unusual cave has formed within a large dyke that intrudes a scoria cone at the summit of Mount Fyans, western Victoria. Draining of a still-liquid area, after most of the dyke had solidified, left an open cavity. Features within the cave mimic those of conventional lava caves, and suggest that the lava levels oscillated within the cave. Some smaller fingers of lava that intruded the scoria also have hollow, drained, cores.
Includes: 7 figures, 6 refs
Keywords: pseudokarst, volcanic caves, dyke.
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Title: Extended Abstract: Ecology and hydrology of a threatened groundwater-dependent ecosystem: the Jewel Cave karst system in Western Australia
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan M.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):21-22
Abstract by KGG: This thesis investigates the hydrology and ecology of a threatened aquatic root mat community in the Jewel Cave karst system in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, Western Australia. Development of the karst system dates from the Early Pleistocene and the caves have been available for colonisation by groundwater fauna since that time. Speleogenesis of the watertable maze caves occurred in a flank margin setting during earlier periods of wetter climate and/or elevated base levels. Watertable fluctuations over the last 50 years did not exceed the range experienced in the Quaternary history. The recent groundwater decline in Jewel Cave was not related to rainfall, nor groundwater abstraction nor nearby tree plantations. However, it did coincide with a reduction in fire frequency within the karst catchment. The resultant increase in understorey vegetation and ground litter may have reduced groundwater recharge through increased evapotranspiration and interception of rainfall. The populations of two genera and species of cave dwelling Amphipoda are largely panmictic. Both species have survived lower watertable levels during the Late Pleistocene. A mechanism for the colonization and isolation of populations in caves is proposed. Faunal patterns (including species diversity, species assemblages, habitat associations and biogeography) were related to abiotic environmental parameters. The ecological water requirements of the community were determined as a baseline for evaluation of impacts such as groundwater pollution. If rainfall continues to decline, and the cave watertable declines > 0.5 m below the present level, then the groundwater ecosystem may become more vulnerable to extinction. The taxonomy and distribution of root mat communities is poorly known and a regional-scale survey is required to properly assess their conservation requirements. Meanwhile, conservation actions for the communities need to be focused at the scale of the karst drainage system and catchment area.
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Title: Extended Abstract: Cave Aragonites of New South Wales
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):22-23
Abstract by KGG: Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.
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Title: Abstract: Karst and Landscape Evolution in parts of the Gambier Karst Province, Southeast South Australia and Western Victoria, Australia
Authors: WHITE, Susan Q.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):24
Abstract by GNB: This study documents the overall features of the Gambier Karst Province. The Naracoorte and Glenelg River sub-regions are in the Tertiary limestones and contain distinctive combinations of karst landform and process. Cave characterstics and development are described for these sub-regions, and are associated with surface karst and drainage, including syngenetic aoleanite karst hosted in Pleistocene dune lithology. The study includes the development of a model for the karst landscape history since the Pliocene, integrating cave morphology and processes with groundwater and long term landscape data.
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Title: Nowranie Caves and the Camooweal Karst Area, Queensland: Hydrology, Geomorphology and Speleogenesis, with Notes on Aquatic Biota
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 2003, Helictite 38(2):27-38
Abstract by author: Development of the Nowranie Caves includes both phreatic and vadose components, with prominent influences on cave geomorphology exerted by joints, bedding and past changes in watertable levels. Active circulation is occurring within a phreatic conduit at moderate depth (22-30 m) below the level of the present watertable. Slugs of flood water can penetrate well into the flooded section of the cave, and it appears that dissolutional enlargement of the conduit may be occurring under present conditions. Speleogenesis in Nowranie Caves incorporates deeper phreatic processes in addition to shallow phreatic (i.e. watertable) processes. A series of three fossil, or occasionally re-flooded, phreatic horizontal levels in the Nowranie Caves correspond with similar levels in other Camooweal caves, and reflect a regional pattern and multi stage history of watertable changes linked with cave development. The stacked series of cave levels may reflect episodic uplift, wetter climatic episodes, or a combination of both - possibly dating from early to mid Tertiary times. Caves and dolines are the major points for groundwater recharge in the Camooweal area, and these are susceptible points for injection of contarninants into the groundwater system. A climatic and distributional relict, and locally endemic, fauna is present in the groundwater. The Nowranie Caves, and Camooweal area generally, has conservation significance as a karst hydrogeological and ecological system that has preserved a history of regional landscape and faunal evolution in northern Australia during the Quaternary.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 tables, 19 refs
Keywords: Camooweal, karst, hydrology, geomorphology, speleogenesis, biota
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Title: The relationship between local climate and radon concentration in the Temple of Baal, Jenolan Caves, Australia
Authors: WHITTLESTONE, Stewart ; JAMES, Julia ; BARNES, Craig
Published: 2003, Helictite 38(2):39-44
Abstract by authors: Radon measurements were collected over a period of one year in a large chamber known as the Temple of Baal at Jenolan Caves, near Sydney, Australia. Correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature confirmed that radon originating from different locations was predominant under different conditions. During periods of low rainfall, radon concentrations varied in strong anti-correlation with the surface air pressure, indicating that most of the radon was coming from remote locations of large pore or void volume in rock of limited permeability. On the other hand, in wet periods the observed radon levels were low and steady, suggesting a local source. In both wet and dry conditions the correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall on a time-scale of a few days was positive, proving that permeability of surface strata affected the ventilation rate in the cave. The study achieved a detailed understanding of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal, and the main conclusion reached was that the magnitude and variation of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal were closely related to the degree of water saturation in the local surrounds.
Includes: 6 figures, 1 table, 6 refs
Keywords: karst, radon, cave climate
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Title: Chromophores Producing Blue Speleothems at Cliefden, NSW
Authors: TURNER, Ken
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):3-6
Abstract by author: Osborne (1978) has described in some detail the blue stalactites that occur in Murder and Boonderoo Caves at Cliefden, NSW and reports ''that the colour is due to some impurity in the aragonite and not to refractive effects''. In this study, small samples from the Boonderoo and Taplow Maze blue speleothems have been chemically analysed. Based on these chemical analyses it is suggested that the major chromophore is copper, with secondary contributions from chromium (Taplow Maze only) and perhaps nickel.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 colour photo, 2 tables, 7 refs
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Title: Cave Temperatures at Naracoorte Caves
Authors: SANDERSON, Ken ; BOURNE, Steven
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):7-10
Abstract by authors: Temperatures in four different caves at Naracoorte were logged for periods of up to two years, during 1998-2001. In Bat Cave temperatures near ground level were 19.0-21.1°C in the maternity chamber, and 10.3-15.6°C near the entrance. In Victoria Fossil Cave temperatures near the fossil chamber were 16.9-18.3°C. In Blanche Cave and the outer chamber of Robertson Cave temperatures were 9.4-15.0°C, with temperatures in the inner chamber of Robertson Cave 14.2-15.0°C. Cave chambers with little air flow had seasonally stable temperatures, and those with high air flow showed seasonal temperature variations of 5-6°C.
Includes: 6 figures, 1 table, 5 refs, 1 data file
Keywords: cave temperature, air flow, Naracoorte Caves
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Title: Systematic composition and distribution of Australian cave collembolan faunas with notes on exotic taxa
Authors: GREENSLADE, Penelope
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):11-16
Abstract by author: Collembola (springtails) have been collected from caves in Tasmania, northwestern Western Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland more intensively in recent years than in the past. A sharp boundary in the composition of faunas of southern and northern Australia was found with the highest diversity of troglobitic forms in southeastern Australia and Tasmania. No extreme examples of troglobitic genera have yet been found in Western Australia. A single record of Cyphoderopsis was made from Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, a common genus in caves in Sumatra. The Jenolan cave system has been most completely sampled with nearly 100 samples from fourteen caves. This system contains over twenty species of which three genera, Adelphoderia, Oncopodura and a new genus near Kenyura, are exclusively troglobitic with locally endemic species of conservation and phylogenetic interest. Compared with some Tasmanian caves, the Jenolan fauna appears to harbour more species that are likely to have been introduced.
Includes: 2 figures, 3 tables, 29 refs
Keywords: Collembola, caves, Australia, distribution
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Title: Palaeokarst in the Noondine Chert in Southwestern Australia: Implications for Water Supply and the Protection of Biodiversity
Authors: APPLEYARD, Steve
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):17-19
Abstract by author: In southwestern Australia, karst features occur in geological formations other than the coastal calcarenites of the Tamala Limestone. The Noondine Chert was formed by the silicification of carbonate rocks and contains relict carbonate textures and palaeokarst features such as intense brecciation and the presence of subsurface voids. This geological formation is an important aquifer to the east of the Perth Basin where groundwater resources are otherwise limited, and the aquifer is highly vulnerable to contamination from agricultural land use. The Noondine Chert may also contain a rich stygofauna. This has not been taken into account in groundwater protection policies, and needs to be assessed as a matter of urgency.
Includes: 1 figure, 15 refs
Keywords: palaeokarst, stygofauna, groundwater, managemen
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Title: The IAH Groundwater Conference at Darwin, May 2002
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):22-23
Abstract : Not yet available.
Includes: 3 photos, 3 refs
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Title: The History of Christmas Island and the Management of its Karst Features
Authors: MEEK, Paul D.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):31-36
Abstract by author: Christmas Island is an external Territory of Australia with a history pre-dating that of mainland Australia. It hosts a diverse range of endemic and native terrestrial, subterranean and aquatic flora and fauna with Australian, Indo-Malesian and Pacific affinities. The Island has survived the impacts experienced on other tropical islands as a result of human settlement and is a highly valued ecological asset to Australia. The karst environment has been under-valued as an ecological entity until recently when extensive speleological surveys were conducted. These surveys were a part of broader attempts to prepare a management plan to conserve the values of the karst environment.
Includes: 1 map, 2 photos, 21 refs
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Title: Searching for Water on Christmas Island
Authors: BARRETT, Peter J.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):37-39
Abstract by author: A hundred years of searching for underground water supplies for the settlement and mine operations on Christmas Island has involved dug wells, drilling, cave exploration and geophysics. Water has been extracted from wells, drill holes, springs and caves. The main production at present is from a set of cave streams on the plateau.
Includes: 1 map, 1 photo
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Title: Karst Features of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):41-58
Abstract by author: Christmas Island (in the Indian Ocean) is an uplifted, composite, reef-carbonate island with a volcanic core. The coast is mostly cliffed and rises steeply via a series of terraces to a central phosphate-blanketed plateau. In spite of the high rainfall, there is little surface water as drainage is underground and karstic - it is initially stored in an epikarst aquifer, then follows the limestone/volcanic contact out to the island edge to emerge at major conduit springs. These springs are mostly at or below sea level, but some perched springs occur where the volcanic rocks appear at the surface. Caves occur at the present coast, as uplifted coastal caves, on the plateau, and there are a few pseudokarst caves. Cave development involves mixing zones between fresh and sea water in the coastal zone, and between vadose and phreatic waters perched on the volcanic rocks beneath the plateau. Cave locations and form are controlled by the rock structure (especially jointing) the location of the volcanic contact, and the combination of uplift with present and past sea levels - which controls the location of the mixing zone.
Includes: 4 maps, 4 figs, 2 tables, 12 photos, 31 refs, 1 appendix
Keywords: island karst, caves, tropical karst, Indian Ocean
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Title: Subterranean Fauna of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean
Authors: HUMPHREYS, W.F.; EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):59-74
Abstract by authors: The subterranean environment of Christmas Island is diverse and includes freshwater, marine, anchialine, and terrestrial habitats. The cave fauna comprises swiftlets, and a diverse assemblage of invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic, which includes a number of rare and endemic species of high conservation signicance. At least twelve species are probably restricted to subterranean habitats and are endemic to Christmas Island. Previously poorly known, the cave fauna of Christmas Island is a signicant component of the island's biodiversity, and a signicant cave fauna province in an international context. The cave fauna and habitats are sensitive to disturbance from a number of threatening processes, including pollution, deforestation, mining, feral species and human visitors.
Includes: 5 tables, 2 photos, 66 refs, 1 appendix
Keywords: Island karst, Biospeleology, stygofauna, troglobites, anchialine, scorpion, Procarididae
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Title: Karst Geology of Wellington Caves: a review
Authors: OSBORNE, R.A.L.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(1):3-12
Abstract by author: After 170 years of scientific investigation and speculation, significant problems in the karst geology of Wellington Caves remain unsolved. Work in progress is addressing issues relating to: the role of the geological structure in cave development; the mechanism of cave formation; the palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the cave sediments; the origin of the phosphate deposits and the relationship between the caves and the surrounding landscape. Little progress has been made in understanding the hydrology of the karst or the meteorology of the caves. These latter problems will require long-term monitoring and data collection, which has yet to commence.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table
Keywords: caves, speleogenesis, cave sediments, vertebrate fossils, Wellington Caves
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Title: Records of the Tasmanian cave fauna known or purported to be in the South Australian Museum
Authors: CLARKE, Arthur
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):23-37
Abstract by KGG: A detailed list of Tasmanian cave invertebrate specimens supposedly held in the South Australian Museum, sorted by species and also by karst area. Records indicate that the South Australian Museum collection should contain at least 334 specimens, represented by 41 species from 9 karst areas and 23 caves in Tasmania; over 40% were not located.
Includes: 1 fig, 26 refs
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Title: Thermoluminescence dating of dune ridges in western Victoria
Authors: WHITE, Susan
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):38-40
Abstract by author: The absolute dating of the Pleistocene dune ridges of southwestern Victoria establishes a time frame for speleogenesis of syngenetic karst in such dune calcarenites.
Includes: 1 fig, 1 table, 9 refs
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Title: Evolution of caves and the Inception Horizon Hypothesis. Review of a paper by Osborne, R.A., 1999, The inception Horizon Hypothesis in vertical to steeply-dipping limestone: Applications in New South Wales, Australia
Authors: GOEDE, Albert
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):41-42
Abstract by KGG: Review of a paper by OSBORNE, R.A., 1999: The inception horizon hypothesis in vertical to steeply-dipping limestone: applications in New South Wales, Australia. Cave and Karst Science, 26(1), 5-12.
Includes: 2 refs
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Title: What is karst? - A Review
Authors: GOEDE, Albert
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):42
Abstract by KGG: A review of a paper by Doerr, S.H., 1999, Karst-like landforms and hydrology in quartzites of the Venezuelan Guyana shield: pseudokarst or 'real' karst? Zeitschrift fur Geomorphology, 43(1), 1-17. The erosion process appears to involve solution of the silica, not just weathering of the cement.
Includes: 1 ref
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Title: Ribbon Helictites: A New Category
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):3-10
Abstract by author: This paper describes the size, shape, abundance and location of ribbon helictites and proposes possible growth mechanisms for them. SEM photographs of surface of a ribbon helictite show an unusual crystal form for a calcite speleothem, together with apparent etching and pitting of surfaces. These surfaces exhibit some features found in organically deposited calcite. Further optical work revealed that stem of ribbon helictites is composed of a twinned pair of crystal aggregates, with stem's central canal lying in this twin plane. The ribbon also appears to exhibit twinning. Oval features on ribbon's surface appear to be twinned aggregates, originating from ribbon's central canal. It is proposed that ribbon helictites form by two growth stages: development of stem and then a ribbon, with influences from acidic solutions. Overall shape is strongly controlled by crystal habit.
Includes: 15 figs, 8 refs
Keywords: helictite, calcite, twinning, Jenolan, lublinite
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Title: Sand speleothems: An Australian Example
Authors: GRIMES, K.G.
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):11-16
Abstract by author: Sand speleothems have formed in sea caves at Loch Ard Gorge, Victoria, Australia, by the localised precipitation of calcium carbonate in loose sand that fills the caves. Calcite-saturated waters have entered the caves from the surrounding porous limestone, either dripping onto the sand, or seeping directly into it from the walls. Removal of the uncemented sand has exposed the cemented formations which have shapes analogous to those of conventional stalagmites, stalactites and shelves.
Includes: 7 figs, 10 refs
Keywords: caves, karst, sand speleothems, concretions, Australia
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Title: Christmas Island cave studies
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):17-18
Abstract by KGG: Summary of karst features and karst biology of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Limestone caps a basalt volcanic seamont. Coastal caves entered from sea cliffs. Uplifted coastal caves reflect past sea levels. Also plateau caves, fissure caves and one cave in basalt. Subterranean fauna was sampled via caves, boreholes and springs. Fauna includes swiftlets and a diverse assemblage of invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic (including anchialine). At least 12 underground species endemic to island.
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Title: Mud speleothems in a west Victorian cave
Authors: GRIMES, K.G.
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):18
Abstract by GJM: Describes mud stalactites in a cave at Drik Drik, western Vic. Suggests a possible mode of formation.
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Title: Perceptions of Australian Caves in the 19th Century: The Visual Record
Authors: HAMILTON-SMITH, Elery
Published: 1997, Helictite 35(1&2):5-11
Abstract by author: Visual images, however produced, provide a record of how the physical world is perceived. All images of the natural world convey both a 'scientific' objectivist perception and an 'aesthetic' subjectivist view, each in differing proportions according to the perception of the person creating the image. This paper examines and assesses the extent to which images of Australian caves produced during the 19th century can illuminate our understanding of how Australias perceived caves at the time. Although providing some overview of all images, the paper gives primary attention to non-photographic renditions.
Includes: 4 figs, 15 refs
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Title: Nineteenth Century Paintings, Drawings and Engravings of Australian Caves
Authors: HAMILTON-SMITH, Elery
Published: 1997, Helictite 35(1&2):12-38
Abstract by author: Non-photographic images of Australian caves and karst from the 19th century are catalogued, together with notes on sources and artists.
Includes: 243 catalogue entries, 15 figs, appendix notes on 3 sources and 46 artists
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Title: Radon and its Decay Products in Caves
Authors: BARNES, Craig M. ; JAMES, Julia M. ; WHITTLESTONE, Stewart
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):33-37
Abstract by RB: Investigations into radon and its progeny in Australian caves are showing the presence within the caves of high levels of these substances. Described here are the factors that have been shown in studies worldwide to affect the levels of radon and radon decay products over time within cave systems.
Includes: 3 figs, 22 refs
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Title: Review: ''The Caves of Thailand'', John R. Dunkley, 1995, 124 pages; ''Thailand Caves Catalogue'', John R. Dunkley, 1994, 44 pages; ''Caves of North-West Thailand'', John R. Dunkley and John B. Brush (eds.), 1986, 62 pages
Authors: MIXON, Bill
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):38
Abstract by GNB: ''The Caves of Thailand'' is a summary of over two thousand caves in the country. Cave maps are limited to a couple of pages of very small-scale line maps. The 1994 ''Thailand Caves Catalogue'' is a condensed verson of the 1995 volume, with cave information reduced to one line per cave. The 1996 ''Caves of North-West Thailand'' is a report on several Australian expeditions. All three books are A4 size softbound, available from the Helictite Commission of Australian Speleological Federation Inc. Orignally published by Speleological Research Council.
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Title: Naked Flame Tests for, and Human Tolerance to, Foul Air Caves
Authors: SMITH, Garry K.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):39-47
Abstract by author: The paper examines the reliability of the 'Naked Flame Test' for measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in caves. It reviews the ways in which carbon dioxide gets into caves, how it forms pockets of high concentration and the composition of the atmosphere in these pockets. A cave air index is used to generate theoretical tables of cave atmosphere compositions for two scenarios composed of carbon dioxide from differing sources. Conditions for combustion together with levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen (O2) required to extinguish flames are stated. The fuel components of various combustible materials available for the Naked Flame Test are described. The paper presents and discusses the results of the laboratory tests on matches, candles and butane cigarette lighter in reduced oxygen atmospheres. It reviews the physiological effects of low O2 and high CO2. It is concluded that the Naked Flame Test measures O2 concentrations and is unreliable for measuring CO2 concentrations. Elevated CO2 levels are recognised as being the life threatening component of most cave atmospheres, however, it is also concluded that the Naked Flame Test is still the safest way for an inexperience caver to test for hazardous cave atmospheres.
Includes: 3 plates (B&W photos), 9 tables, 31 refs
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Title: Fossil Bones from Mamo Kananda, Southern Highlands, Papua New Guinea
Authors: WORTHY, T.H. ; FLANNERY, T.F.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):49-54
Abstract by authors: Fossil bones collected from Mamo Kananda cave system in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea during the 'Muller 82' expedition are described. Twenty six taxa of mammals, and a few birds and amphibians are present. Most of the bones were accumulated by the Sooty owl (Tyto tenebricosa) enabling an analysis of this birds prey in the Southern Highlands. The faunas are considered to be of Holocene age as all fossil species are extant, and the fossil sites are within their altitudinal range.
Includes: 3 figs, 1 table, 8 refs
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Title: Vadose Weathering of Sulfides and Limestone Cave Development - Evidence from Eastern Australia
Authors: OSBORNE, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(1):5-15
Abstract by RB: Many significant limestone caves in eastern Australia (particularly New South Wales, Tasmania) are associated with sulfide deposits and other ore bodies. These deposits have a variety of origins (hydrothermal, paleokarst, volcaniclastic). The sulfides weather on exposure to oxygen - rich vadose seepage water, lowering the water pH and releasing sulfate and magnesium which can lead to the deposition of gypsum and aragonite speleothems. Removal of weathered ores and ore - bearing paleokarst sediments in the vadose zone is, in places, an important mechanism for the formation of large caverns.
Includes: 12 figs, 32 refs
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Title: The Stromatolites of the Cenote Lakes of the Lower South East of South Australia
Authors: THURGATE, Mia E.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(1):17-25
Abstract by RB: Stromatolite are lithified, laminated, organosedimentary deposits. Preliminary examination of eight cenote lakes near Mt. Gambier has revealed the presence of tens of thousands of actively - forming stromatolites. Based on the external morphology, 14 different types of stromatolites have been identified, columnar growth forms are most common. Three genus of Diatom and three genus of Cyanobacteria are the most likely responsible for stromatolite development.
Includes: 3 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 18 refs
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Title: Investigations of the Wyanbene Caves Area
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(2):29-34
Abstract by author: This paper discusses preliminary findings concerning the geological structure of these and other caves in the area. The other caves include Clarke's Cave, Ridge Mine Pot, Goat Cave and several unnamed caves and springs. Wyanbene Cave is a streamway cave, formed primarily along a south striking joint in Late Silurian limestone. Drainage of the surface above Wyanbene Cave is affected by the south west striking joints of a Late Devonian conglomerate cap. Secondary deposits in the cave are affected by hydrothermal ore deposits.
Includes: 5 figs, 4 refs
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Title: Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology of Gunung Tempurung, Perak, Malaysia
Authors: GILLESON, David ; HOLLAND, Ernst ; DAVIES, Gareth
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(2):35-42
Abstract by authors: Gunung Tempurung is a 600-metre high limestone tower in the Kinta Valley located to the south of the city of Ipoh, Malaysia. The tower contains at least one extensive cave system, Gua Tempurung, which has a length of approximately 4800 metres and a vertical range of about 200 metres. The tower is an erosional remnant of a thick sequence of Silurian - Permian Limestones initially formed as a shelf deposit near an ancient coastline. The carbonate rocks lie adjacent to, and are laterally bounded by, Late Mesozoic granite plutoniic rocks emplaced by activity related to the Late Triassic uplift from plate boundary stresses along the western edge of the Malay Peninsular. The limestones have been folded and compressed between the granites and have been altered by contact metamorphism to marbles and skarn. Hydrothermal mineralisation of the limestone host rock has yeilded deposits of tin, with some tungsten minerals and other minor ores. In the central part of the karst tower a river-cave system, Gua Tempurung, developed from local damming of the north and south outlets of a small catchment derived from the granite upland area to the east. In several locations inside the dry upper chambers of the cave, vein deposits of tin (cassiterite) are evident in walls and ceilings. Additionally alluvial tin deposits derived from the Old Alluvium are present in the cave.
Includes: 6 figs, 2 plates, 7 refs
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Title: Early Accounts of Caves in Mauritius
Authors: MIDDLETON, Greg
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(1):5-18
Abstract by author: A survey is attempted of published accounts of lava caves on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius up to the early 20th century. A number of writers mentioned caves as part of the natural curiosities of the island, though there was a high level of information recycling. The earliest written cave account dates from 1769; the cave it relates to is also the most written-about and, on current knowledge, is the oldest on the island. On neighbouring Rodrigues the earliest record is thought to date from 1789.
Includes: 7 figures, 1 table, 24 refs
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Title: Cocklebiddy Shells
Authors: BROWN, Rosemary
Published: 1996, Helictite 33(1):19-21
Abstract by author: Five genera of shells were collected from the sediment around Cocklebiddy Cave lake in the Nullarbor Plain (Western Australia). All shells belong to small modern gastropod terrestrial snails.
Includes: 1 figure, 10 refs
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Title: Siluro-Devonian Bungonia Group, Southern Highlands, NSW
Authors: BAUER, J.A.
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(2):25-34
Abstract by author: The Bungonia Group is a sequence of Late Silurian - Early Devonian biostromal limestone, sandstone and shale constituting marine fill of the Wollondilly Basin, an extensional structure initiated during the Mid-Silurian. The Bungonia Limestone (Carne & Jones, 1919) is elevated to Group status based on detailed mapping and analysis of the facies and faunal assemblages. The following succession of conformable formations and members is formalised: Lookdown Limeston (lowest); Cardinal View Shale; Frome Hill Formation consisting of the Folly Point Limestone Member, Efflux Siltstone Member and Sawtooth Rdige Member (highest).
Includes: 5 figs, 23 refs, 1 appendix
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Title: Cavernicolous leeches in Papua New Guinea
Authors: VAN DER LANDE, Virginia M.
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(2):35-39
Abstract by author: At least two limestone cavers in Papua New Guinea harbour the unique leech, Leiobdella jawarerensis, the only haemadipsid (land) leech known without cutaneous pigmentation. The species probably occurs in at least three other widely separated sites. The leeches feed on blood extracted from bats and swiftlets inhabiting the caves. Directions for preserving the leeches are given. Errata published in Helictite 33(1):22.
Includes: 5 figs, 17 refs, 1 appendix
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Title: The Effects of Fire on Soluble Rock Landscapes
Authors: HOLLAND, Ernst
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(1):3-10
Abstract by author: The spalling of limestone as a result of fire is discussed. Numerous observations throughout Australian karsts show that the effects of fire on limestone vary with its type, the intensity of the fire and the nature of the limestone weathering. An associated laboratory study of the effects of heat on limestone is also discussed.
Includes: 3 figs, 2 tables, 8 plates, 20 refs
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Title: Hotu Matua's ''Island full of holes'': Volcanokarst in the Culture and Landscape of Easter Island
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(1):11-16
Abstract by author: Volcanokarst is intimately interwoven with the human history of Easter Island. While the caves have been a focus for some archaeological investigation they have been litte studied in their own right. The island is entirely volcanic, and lava tunnels are well developed in tholetic flows which emanated from several vents. The Roiho olivine basalt flow from the small cone of Manunga Hiva hiva is particularly rich in caves. There is limited cave development due to piping of volcanic ash.
Includes: 2 figs, 25 refs
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Title: Crombie's Cave. A Granite Cave in New England, NSW
Authors: OLLIER, C.D. ; SMITH, J.M.B.
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(1):17-20
Abstract by author: Crombie's Cave is a small cave near Armidale, NSW, formed when Powers Creek found an underground route through weathered joints in granite, and enlarged by stream abrasion.
Includes: 2 figs, 3 plates, 5 refs
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Title: The Exit Cave Quarry: Tracing Waterflows and Resource Policy Evolution
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):27-42
Abstract by author: The principle objective of this paper is to record water tracing experiments undertaken in October 1991, and to review current understanding of the hydrogeology of the karst area. The tracing indicated important underground drainage connections existed between cave systems and a limestone quarry, which has since been closed. In addition, because the research occurred in the context of a major political debate regarding the impact of quarrying on Exit Cave and the future of the quarry, this paper also provides a useful opportunity to place on record part of the scientific input to the subsequent public policy process, and to consider some implications for researchers when the level of political interventions in the research process is high. Although time constraints and other factors may compromise optimal methodology and create other diffculties for researchers involved in such circumstances, research may be stimulated that would not otherwise occur.
Includes: 2 figs, 1 table, 32 refs
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Title: Abstract: Eastern Australian Quaternary Mammal Faunas: Their Palaeoclimatic and Faunistic Setting - and their potential
Authors: RIDE, W.D.L.
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):44
Abstract by author, RM: The availability of extensive palaeoclimatic information and the realisation that the cave deposits of eastern Australia extend back into the Tertiary, and the recognition that virtually the whole of the characteristic marsupial fauna are arid adapted, it seems likely that the caves have the potential to illustrate the whole of the spectacular and rapid Australian radiation after the loss of the rainforests.
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Title: Abstract: The Invertebrate Cave Fauna of Wombeyan
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by RM: 57 species of cave dwelling invertebrates are recorded.
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Title: Abstract: The Gregory Karst and Caves, Northern Territory
Authors: DUNKLEY, John R.
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by author, RM: Located in the Gregory National Park between Katherine and Kununurra, this area has been investigated by speleologists since 1990 and this is a preliminary report drawing attention to a significant new tropical karst.
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Title: Abstract: Distribution of Bryophites on Limestones in Eastern Australia
Authors: DOWNING, A.J.
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by author, RM: Comparisons of bryophytes on limestone and nonlimestone substrates at Jenolan Caves, London Bridge, and Attunga.
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Title: Abstract: Speleogenesis in Aeolian Calcarenite: A Case Study in Western Victoria
Authors: WHITE, Susan
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by author, RM: The simultaneous lithification of the carbonate dunes into aeolian calcarenite rock and the development of solutional karst features in the dunes is the characteristic feature of the speleogenesis of the area.
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Title: Abstract: Insect Larvae and Tufa Formation at Louie Creek, Northwest Queensland, Australia
Authors: DRYSDALE, Russell
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):46
Abstract by author, RM: Although insect larvae have been previously recorded in tufas, no studies have been carried out which examine their role in tufa formation. It is clear from preliminary results from Louie Creek that these organisism are in some cases very important in tufa growth and development.
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Title: Land Management, Water Quality and Sedimentation in Subsurface Karst Conduits
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin ; EBERHARD, Roland ; CAMPBELL, Bryan
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(1):3-12
Abstract by authors: Observations from several Tasmanian karsts suggest considerable changes have occurred underground following forest clearing for pasture and some commercial forestry practices. The changes include altered hydrological behaviour and water quality changes, together with the advent of sedimentation patterns that are 1/ inconsistent with the stratigraphic record of cave sediment accumulation prior to human interference in the catchement, 2/ at variance with what is happening beneath comparable undisturbed catchments, and 3/ indicate the deposition of significantly greater volumes of sediment since catchment disturbance that was previously the case. Preliminary results from several Tasmanian caves suggest that the proportion of the anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 in cave sediments deposited during recent decades is inversely proportional to the broad degree to which the catchment overlying the caves has been disturbed. This is interpreted as being the result of the dilution of sediment eroded from the land surface by material derived from sub-surface sources. This seems most likely to be due to changed patterns of diffuse infiltration.
Includes: 3 figs, 3 tables, 21 refs
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Title: Karsting Around For Bones: Aborigines and Karst Caves in South Eastern Australia
Authors: SPATE, Andy
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(1):13-22
Abstract by author: Whilst there appears to be a popular belief that Australian Aborigines viewed caves with some trepidation there is much anecdotal and physical evidence that karst caves were used for occupation, art and funery practices. This paper reviews the past and modern literature on Aboriginal use of karst caves on the Tablelands and immediate surrounds. About ten occupation and a lesser number of disposition sites are known as are hand stencils and abstract engraved art. More representational art has been reported in the past and skeletal material of accidental or unknown origin reported widely. Dated sites are few ranging from about 1500 years BP to as old as 23000 years BP. Much physical evidence has been lost and a numer of sites are well known to have been used but have not been more than cursorily examined or results have not been published. The paper also discusses karst caves that appear to have been suitable occupation sites; these may well repay examination.
Includes: 1 map, 1 table, 49 refs
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Title: Karst Geomorphology and Biospeleology at Vanishing Falls, South-West Tasmania
Authors: EBERHARD, Rolan ; EBERHARD, Stefan ; WONG, Vera
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):25-32
Abstract by author, RM: A speleological expedition to Vanishing Falls explored a 2.3km long cave associated with the underground course of the Salisbury River, and provided the first systematic documentation of karst features and cave ecology in this remote area. The caves host a fauna comprising at least 30 taxa, of which probably more than 14 are troglobitic or stygobiontic. This fauna exhibits a high degree of troglomorphy, with some species likely to be endemic to the Vanishing Falls karst.
Includes: 5 figs, 2 tables, 32 refs
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Title: Radon Hazard in Caves: A Monitoring and Management Strategy
Authors: LYONS, Ruth G.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):33-40
Abstract by author, RM: Factors governing the accumulation of radon in caves are discussed. Preliminary measurements in some Australian caves show levels which vary by factors of 4 (seasonal) and 75 (diurnal), with the upper levels approaching recommended maximum exposure levels for some tourist cave guides.
Includes: 7 figs, 3 tables, 19 refs
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Title: An Unusual Subjacent Karst Doline at East Buchan, Victoria
Authors: DAVEY, Adrian G ; WHITE, Susan
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):41-43
Abstract by author, RM: A small subjacent karst doline is described which is expressed in surface outcrop of volcanics overlying limestone. The doline is close to the fault contact between the karstic and non - karstic rocks. Stratigraphic inversion resulting from thrusting of the volcanics over the limestone on an inclined fault plane gives the unusual result of a surface doline form expressed in rocks which are older than the underlying karst rocks, solution of which is responsible for the surface form.
Includes: 1 fig, 14 refs
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Title: A Giant Late Pleistocene Halite Speleothem from Webbs Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Southeastern Western Australia
Authors: GOEDE, Albert ; ATKINSON, Tim C. ; ROWE, Peter J.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):3-7
Abstract by authors: A giant halite stalagmite found in a broken condition, believed to be tallest recorded anywhere, collected from Webbs Cave, Mundrabilla area, Nullarbor. Reconstruction showed it had been 2780 mm tall. Collapse due to water percolating down the side and dissolving cylindrical hole near base. Analysis of bulk sample indicates late Pleistocene deposition between 20 and 37 ka. Previous dating of a small halite speleothem from Webbs Cave showed Holocene period of halite deposition dated at 2.5 +/- 1.2 ka.
Includes: 2 figs, 1 table, 17 refs
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Title: The Phototropic Phytospeleothems of Moss Palace, Mole Creek, Tasmania
Authors: LICHON, Michael J.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):8-10
Abstract by author: In Moss Palace, the presence of unusual speleothems further justifies the conservation of Dogs Head Hill karst at Mole Creek, Tasmania. A ''symbiotic'' carbonate deposition and growth of the moss Distichophyllum microcarpum results in phototropic phytospeleothems, in the form of fan-shaped erratics.
Includes: 2 plates, 2 figs, 10 refs
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Title: Some Coastal Landforms in Aeolian Calcarenite, Flinders Island, Bass Strait
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):11-19
Abstract by RB: The development of solutional landforms in Pleistocene calcarenite on Flinders Is. (Tasmania) is described - particularly at Cave Bay and Fotheringate Bay. Radiometric dating of speleothems indicate that the cavity in which it formed was in existence during the late Last Glacial Stage and was invaded by the sea during the Holocene.
Includes: 3 figs, 55 refs
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Title: A New Topofil
Authors: WARILD, Alan
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):20-23
Abstract by author: A light, compact, reliable instrument for surveying difficult vertical caves has been a drean of cave surveyors for many years. The topofil described goes a long way towards fulfilling that ideal, although there are still problems of availability and user error. Even so, the author is of the firm opinion that topofils are ideal for expedition and deep cave surveys.
Includes: 2 figs, 5 refs
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63 abstracts.

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