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The abstracts appear in reverse order of the publishing sequence in Helictite.
Title: New evidence confirms Thomas Hannay as the first photographer of Naracoorte Caves and emphasises the importance of historical writing in caves
Authors: REED, Elizabeth; BOURNE, Steven
Published: December 2018, Helictite 44:45-58
Abstract by authors: Naracoorte Caves National Park in South Australia is a UNESCO World Heritage site renowned for its Quaternary vertebrate fossil record spanning the past 500,000 years. Although the primary heritage values of the park relate to the fossil deposits, significant other values include biological, geological, cultural and historical aspects. In 1860, the Reverend Julian Tenison-Woods commissioned a series of photographs of Blanche Cave for use by the engraver Alexander Burkitt in illustrating Woods' 1862 book Geological observations in South Australia. The identity of the photographer was unknown until recently, when we discovered an engraving in a Melbourne periodical that cited Thomas Hannay of Maldon as the producer of the photo. Despite this breakthrough, there was no direct evidence linking Hannay to Naracoorte Caves. In May 2018, we discovered an inscription on the wall of Blanche Cave that can be attributed to Thomas Hannay, providing evidence of the photographer’s visit to the caves. This inscription highlights the importance of historical writing in caves as primary information for historical research. In this paper we present background information on the 1860 Hannay photographs of Naracoorte Caves and describe the inscription found in Blanche Cave. We also discuss the historical value of cave inscriptions and the issues relating to cave restoration projects that involve removal of 'graffiti'.
Includes: 13 figures (10 B&W images, 6 colour images), 18 refs
Keywords: Naracoorte Caves, Thomas Hannay, cave photography, Julian Tenison-Woods, Alexander Burkitt, historical graffiti, cave conservation
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Title: The Australian travels of Jiří Viktor Daneš: Geographer, speleologist and world traveller
Authors: DUNKLEY, John; WELCH, Bruce
Published: December 2018, Helictite 44:31-43
Abstract by GB: The key documents discussed here are a 76-page professional paper "Karststudien in Australien" written in German and published in Prague in 1916, a large 2-volume book "Dvojím Rájem" (Through a Double Paradise) in Czech, and some shorter articles by Daneš on Australian karst, limestone and other physiography, in English, German and Czech.
Includes: 28 figures (25 B&W images, 2 colour images, 1 map), 28 refs
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Title: Karst Studies in Australia 1916 (Translated by John Pickett)
Authors: DANEŠ, J.V.
Published: December 2018, Helictite 44:1-30
Abstract by GB: This paper was presented on 28 January 1916 and originally published in: Karststudien in Australian 1916, Sitzungsberichte der königlichen böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Jahrgang 1916, VI, 1-75, (Meeting reports of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences, Mathematical-Scientific Class, Volume 1916, Part 6, Pages 1-75). It has been translated to English from the original German by John Pickett, retaining sentence construction and meaning of all phrases.
Includes: 4 B&W illustrations, 38 footnotes
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Title: Unusual caves and karst-like features in sandstone and conglomerate in Thailand
Authors: DUNKLEY, John; ELLIS, Martin; BOLGER Terry
Published: March 2018, Helictite 43:1-13
Abstract by authors: Caves are common, significant and widespread in Thailand; over 5,000 are recorded. Probably no other country has a closer human association with caves, largely based on Buddhist occupation, traditions and culture. About 90% are in limestone, but about 400 sites in sandstone are known from northeast Thailand, most are of significance to local communities although of limited scientific or speleological significance. A number known to contain running water are discussed in the context of favourable bedding planes or inceptions and other characteristics. Numerous authors have demonstrated that limestone caves develop along a restricted number of bedding planes within a limestone series but less discussion has occurred about the initiation and development in sandstone and similar non-carbonate caves. Comparisons are drawn with similar caves, karst-like and ruiniform features in India, Czech Republic, Australia and elsewhere, a number of which have received little exploration and research attention until recently. Although advances have been made in the last 25 years, sandstone terrains still remain insufficiently studied.
Includes: 36 figures (31 colour images, 5 maps and sketches), 32 refs
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Title: Fauna of a granite cave: first data from Britannia Creek Cave (3GP10-48), Wesburn, Victoria, Australia
Authors: IANNELLO, Silvana; GREENSLADE, Penelope; PALMER, Grant
Published: March 2017, Helictite 43:1-13
Abstract by authors: There are few studies in Australia on the fauna of granite caves. Britannia Creek Cave is a granite cave heavily used for recreation yet it has never been mapped nor has the cave fauna been documented. We present here the cave system showing eight ecological zones, A to H, which we mapped, each with different light and moisture characteristics. The faunal diversity and composition in each zone is reported using data recorded from three surveys conducted in April, August and October 2015. For all fauna observed, the zone in which it occurred was noted. Taxa were identified to species level or to genus or family where species was unknown. The composition of fauna assemblages was investigated using Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). Three taxa, the Raphidophoridae (cave crickets), Keroplatidae (glowworms) and Araneae (spiders), were most abundant and occurred in all eight zones. Known cave dwellers, such as Arachnocampa (Campara) gippslandensis (glowworm) were observed in small isolated clusters in three zones, C, E and H. The highest number of taxa (7) were present in the transition zone B, followed by zone A (6) and a dark zone F (6). Fewest taxa (2) were present in transition zone D. Because there are few publications on the biology of granite caves in Australia, our data can contribute to determining future conservation and land management priorities, especially in regard to recreational use which we also recorded.
Includes: 7 figures (3 colour images, 2 maps, 2 graphs), 2 tables, 38 refs
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Title: The 1830 Cave Diaries of Thomas Livingstone Mitchell
Authors: DUNKLEY, John R.
Published: December 2016, Helictite 42:21-37
Abstract by author: In 1830 the Surveyor-General of NSW, Thomas (later Sir) Mitchell gathered bones at Wellington and other cave sites in the NSW Central West, initiating almost two centuries of palaeontological research. This paper transcribes his previously unpublished diaries for the key 16 days of this essentially 'private' expedition to Molong, Borenore, Wellington and beyond, during which he spent 13 days in cave exploration and several more drawing cave maps and sketches. Mitchell's background, motivation and outcomes are discussed along with the contributions of some minor players.
Includes: 11 figures (1 colour map, 4 colour images, 1 B&W image, 4 diary entry reproductions), 26 refs
Keywords: Sir Thomas Mitchell, Wellington Caves, Molong, Borenore, expeditions
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Title: The discovery of a Dodo Raphus cucullatus Linn. (Aves, Columbiformes) in a highland Mauritian lava cave
Authors: MIDDLETON, Gregory J.; HUME, Julian P.
Published: July 2016, Helictite 42:13-20
Abstract by author: In September 2006, during a survey of Mauritian caves for cockroaches (Blattodea), a skeleton of a Dodo (Raphus cucullatus Linn. 1758) termed 'Dodo Fred' was serendipitously discovered in a highland lava cave. It was subsequently removed from the cave for curation. It is only the second individual associated skeleton to be found, the only one recorded in context and in modern times, and has been called 'the most scientifically important Dodo in the world'. This paper records the circumstances surrounding its discovery, and provides additional information concerning other Dodo subfossil deposits. The preservation of bone material in lava tubes is also discussed. The publication of this paper has unfortunately been considerably delayed, so some of the factual content is no longer novel.
Includes: 13 figures (3 maps, 7 colour images, 3 B&W images), 31 refs
Keywords: Dodo, subfossil, associated skeleton, Mauritius, lava cave
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Title: The Speleotourist Experience: Approaches to Show Cave Operations in Australia and China
Authors: CRANE, Ralph; FLETCHER, Lisa
Published: April 2016, Helictite 42:1-11
Abstract by author: This article provides a comparative study of commercial cave tourism in Australia and China, focussing on the methods of site interpretation and presentation used by selected show caves. The key point of contrast between the commercial speleotourist experiences offered in Australia and China is in the relative priority given to site conservation and framing the cave as a spectacle for the enjoyment of visitors. The discussion draws on the authors' field research, visiting show caves as tourists to consider the significance of developments in ecotourism and geotourism for show cave management in Australia and China.
Includes: 12 figures (colour images), 35 refs
Keywords: Show caves Australia, show caves China, show cave management, ecotourism, geotourism
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Title: Managing the Survey Information of the Caves of Judbarra / Gregory National Park, Northern Territory
Authors: KERSHAW, Bob
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:87-94
Abstract by author: The extensive caves in the Judbarra / Gregory National Park have been surveyed using traditional techniques since 1990. The techniques used have developed over time, as new technologies have become available to cavers. With the introduction of hardware such as Global Positioning System handheld units and electronic survey equipment, surveying has become easier, especially in small physically restricting passages. The use of computers and cave data reduction software since the mid-1990s has automated the calculation and plotting of survey shot data. Software that enables the production of maps is time-consuming to learn to use; however, the maps are of high quality, and are easy to maintain and adjust as subsequent expeditions continue to add cave survey data. As the amount of data and the number of users of the data grow, a set of protocols has been developed to ensure the integrity and security of a master data set.
Includes: 10 figures (3 maps, 4 diagrams, 3 colour photos), 2 tables, 5 refs
Keywords: Cave surveying, map production, data management, expeditions, Australia
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Title: Preliminary notes on the Cavernicolous Arthropod Fauna of Judbarra / Gregory Karst Area, northern Australia
Authors: MOULDS, Timothy; BANNINK, Peter
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:75-85
Abstract by authors: The Judbarra / Gregory Karst Region is situated in the Judbarra / Gregory National Park, west of Timber Creek, Northern Territory. Several large joint controlled maze caves occur within the area, developed within and below a prominent dolomitic layer (the Supplejack Member). The caves are predominantly shallow in depth (< 15 m below the surface) but are occasionally developed deeper as multi-level systems, reaching the aquifer. Two biological surveys from the largest caves have revealed 56 morphospecies from 43 families, 19 orders, and 7 classes. All collecting was undertaken in the northern dry season (April to September) and consisted predominantly of opportunistic collecting. The diversity of invertebrates collected from the Judbarra / Gregory karst comprised non-troglobionts (48 species, 86%), troglobionts (5 species, 9%), stygobionts (2 species, 3%), and trogloxenes (1 species, 2%). Five of the species are considered to be potential troglobionts, and two potential stygobionts as indicated by troglomorphisms such as elongate appendages and reduced or absent eyes. The five troglobiont species are an isopod (Platyarthridae: Trichorhina sp.), a scorpion (Buthidae: Lychas? sp. nov.), a pseudoscorpion (Geogarypidae: Geogarypus sp. nov.), a millipede (Polydesmida: sp.), and a planthopper (Meenoplidae: sp.). The two stygobiont species are a hydrobiid snail (Hydrobiidae: sp.), and an amphipod (Amphipoda: sp.). The troglobiont scorpion is only the second collected from a cave environment from continental Australia.
Includes: 6 figures (2 maps, 3 diagrams, 1 colour photo), 2 tables, 55 refs, 1 additional colour photo
Keywords: Biospeleology, troglobiont, stygobiont, scorpion, tropical
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Title: Karst and Paleokarst Features involving Sandstones of the Judbarra / Gregory National Park, Northern Territory, Australia
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:67-73
Abstract by author: In addition to carbonate karsts, the Judbarra / Gregory National Park of tropical northern Australia has karst and paleokarst features associated with Proterozoic sandstone units. On a sandstone plateau in the Newcastle Range, there are several large collapse dolines formed in the Proterozoic Jasper Gorge Sandstone. As there is a carbonate unit, the Proterozoic Campbell Springs Dolostone, lying about 110 m beneath the plateau surface, these sinkholes may be subjacent karst features resulting from the upward stoping of large cave chambers. In the Far Northern area of the Judbarra Karst Region, areas of chert breccia are shown on the geological maps, and linear bodies of brecciated sandstone are inset into the carbonate beds of the Skull Creek Formation. The sandstone is derived from the Jasper Gorge Sandstone, which overlies the Skull Creek Formation in adjoining areas. The breccia is interpreted as paleokarst of uncertain age resulting from subsidence of the sandstone into karst trenches or collapsed cavities developed in the underlying carbonate beds.
Includes: 7 figures (3 maps, 2 diagrams, 2 colour photos), 1 table, 10 refs
Keywords: Karst, sandstone, subjacent karst, paleokarst, Australia
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Title: Epikarstic Maze Cave Development: Bullita Cave System, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, Tropical Australia
Authors: MARTINI, Jacques E.J.; GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:37-66
Abstract by authors: In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, Bullita Cave is the largest (120 km) of a group of extensive, horizontal, joint-controlled, dense network maze caves which are epikarst systems lying at shallow depth beneath a welldeveloped karrenfield. The Judbarra / Gregory Karst and its caves are restricted to the outcrop belt of a thin bed of sub-horizontal, thinly interbedded dolostone and calcitic limestone - the Supplejack Dolostone Member of the Proterozoic Skull Creek Formation. Karst is further restricted to those parts of the Supplejack that have escaped a secondary dolomitisation event. The karrenfield and underlying cave system are intimately related and have developed in step as the Supplejack surface was exposed by slope retreat. Both show a lateral zonation of development grading from youth to old age. Small cave passages originate under the recently exposed surface, and the older passages at the trailing edge become unroofed or destroyed by ceiling breakdown as the, by then deeply-incised, karrenfield breaks up into isolated ruiniform blocks and pinnacles and eventually a low structural pavement. Vertical development of the cave has been generally restricted to the epikarst zone by a 3 m bed of impermeable and incompetent shale beneath the Supplejack which first perched the watertable, forming incipient phreatic passages above it, and later was eroded by vadose flow to form an extensive horizontal system of passages 10-20 m below the karren surface. Some lower cave levels in underlying dolostone occur adjacent to recently incised surface gorges. Speleogenesis is also influenced by the rapid, diffuse, vertical inflow of storm water through the karrenfield, and by ponding of the still-aggressive water within the cave during the wet season - dammed up by "levees" of sediment and rubble that accumulate beneath the degraded trailing edge of the karrenfield. The soil, and much biological activity, is not at the bare karren surface, but down on the cave floors, which aids epikarstic solution at depth rather than on the surface. While earlier hypogenic, or at least confined, speleogenic activity is possible in the region, there is no evidence of this having contributed to the known maze cave systems. The age of the cave system appears to be no older than Pleistocene. Details of the speleogenetic process, its age, the distinctive nature of the cave systems and comparisons with other areas in the world are discussed.
Includes: 29 figures (5 maps, 6 diagrams, 18 colour photos), 45 refs
Keywords: Tropical monsoon karst, network maze caves, epikarst, karren
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Title: Surface Karst Features of the Judbarra / Gregory National Park, Northern Territory, Australia
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:15-36
Abstract by author: In the monsoon tropics of northern Australia, a strongly-developed karrenfield is intimately associated with extensive underlying epikarstic maze caves. The caves, and the mesokarren and ruiniform megakarren are mainly restricted to a flat-lying, 20 m thick, unit of interbedded limestone and dolomite. However, microkarren are mainly found on the flaggy limestones of the overlying unit. These are the best-developed microkarren in Australia, and possibly worldwide. A retreating cover results in a zonation of the main karrenfield from a mildly-dissected youthful stage at the leading edge through to old age and disintegration into isolated blocks and pinnacles at the trailing edge. Cave undermining has formed collapse dolines and broader subsidence areas within the karrenfield. Tufa deposits occur in major valleys crossing the karrenfield. The karrenfield shows some similarities to other tropical karren, including tsingy and stone forests (shilin), but in this area there has not been any initial stage of subcutaneous preparation.
Includes: 17 figures (3 maps, 2 diagrams, 10 sets of colour photos, 2 sets of B&W photos), 1 table, 40 refs, 1 appendix
Keywords: Karst, karren, tsingy, stone forest, microkarren, ruiniform, epikarst, tufa, tropical, Australia
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Title: A History of Cave Exploration in the Judbarra / Gregory National Park
Authors: KERSHAW, Bob
Published: 2012, Helictite 41:5-14
Abstract by author: The caves of the Judbarra / Gregory National Park were known to the Aboriginal tribes of the area who used them for art and ritual sites. The initial work by Northern Territory Parks and Wildlife Commission Rangers Keith Claymore and Keith Oliver was followed by the Operation Raleigh Expedition from the UK in 1990, which made the first maps of the caves. Starting in 1991 regular exploration and mapping expeditions by Australian cavers were coordinated by Top End Speleological Society and Canberra Speleological Society. The surveyed passage length of all caves in Judbarra/Gregory National Park is almost 220km and the longest single connected system is the 122km Bullita Cave System in the Central Karst Area. Studies of the geology and biology of the caves were also conducted during this time and are reported on in separate papers in this volume.
Includes: 4 figures (2 maps, 1 B&W photo, 1 colour photo), 1 table, 24 refs, 2 additional colour photos
Keywords: History, cave exploration, surveying, Australia
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Title: Sand structures cemented by focussed flow in dune limestone, Western Australia
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2011, Helictite 40(2):51-54
Abstract by author: Pendants, pillars and concretions of cemented sand are exposed in a dune limestone cave in southwest Western Australia. These are the result of focussed flow of carbonate-saturated water through the sand in a very early stage of eogenetic diagenesis. Vertical vadose fingered flow has cemented the pillars and pendants, and horizontal phreatic flow has produced a layer of elongated concretions along a bedding plane. Later cave development has exposed the cemented sand bodies.
Includes: 4 figures (3 colour photos), 16 refs
Keywords: syngenetic karst, eogenetic diagenesis, concretions, speleogens, sand speleothems, fingered flow, dune calcarenite, Australia
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Title: White-rumped Swiftlet Breeding Colony Size and Colony Locations in Samoa
Authors: TARBURTON, Michael K.
Published: 2011, Helictite 40(2):35-49
Abstract by author: This paper describes the breeding and roosting caves used by the White-rumped Swiftlet (Aerodramus spodiopygius) on Upolu and Savai'i, Samoa. Because these sites tend to be permanent and often difficult to locate, their locations and other information to help find them are provided as a guide for future workers. This study lasted four years and followed close after two devastating cyclones (Val & Ofa) so the data can form the basis for further study once the populations have fully recovered and equilibria for the populations is reached.
Includes: 3 tables (38 cave descriptions, maps), 1 colour photo, 2 maps, 35 refs
Keywords: Aerodramus spodiopygius, Swiftlet colony, Lava caves, Samoa
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Title: Australia's crystalline heritage: issues in cave management at Jenolan Caves
Authors: SMITH, Moshumi J.; BURNS, Georgette Leah
Published: 2011, Helictite 40(2):27-34
Abstract by authors: This paper provides an environmental sustainability perspective on contemporary cave management issues in Australia through examination of Australia's most prominent tourist cave attraction, Jenolan Caves. Five key issues are discussed: the administration and funding of the Jenolan Caves Karst Conservation Reserve; the extent of baseline data available; long-term access and transport arrangements to the caves; visitor management; and the provision of interpretation facilities. Each of these illustrates the difficulty of balancing the competing values and interests represented by conservation, commercialisation and tourism. Cave management at Jenolan has improved in recent years but further changes in policy and management structures are required to ensure environmental sustainability.
Includes: 4 figures (B&W photos), 46 refs
Keywords: karst, tourist cave, management, Australia
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Title: Microkarren in Australia - a request for information
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2007, Helictite 40(1):21-23
Abstract by author: Microkarren are the smallest class of visible karren. They are finely-sculptured solutional forms, typically recognisable within a one centimetre grid. They come in a variety of patterns, of which fields of moderately to strongly sinuous microrills about 1mm wide and several decimetres long are the most conspicuous type. A descriptive terminology is suggested. Their genesis is uncertain, but appears to involve solution by thin films of water (dew, sea-spray or light rain) with surface-tension effects. In Australia their best development seems to be in the tropical monsoon (seasonally dry) and arid areas. However, these cryptic forms are poorly recorded and it is too early to make definite statements about their distribution. This note is a request for people to watch for them and report any sightings.
Includes: 5 photos, 7 refs
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Title: Tectonic and Talus Caves at Pilchers Mountain, New South Wales
Authors: SMITH, Garry K.
Published: 2007, Helictite 40(1):11-20
Abstract by author: There are fourteen known caves within the Pilchers Mountain Environmental Protection Reserve, in New South Wales, Australia. The reserve contains five main chasms which run generally East-West for approximately one kilometre, over a total width of half a kilometre. The chasms and caves were formed by massive sandstone block separation along sub-parallel joint planes. Movement of the blocks toward the valley floor was aided by the dip of the sandstone layers and presence of underlying shale bands which acted as slip planes when lubricated by groundwater. There are two distinct types of caves at Pilchers Mountain, "tectonic" caves formed by the movement of large blocks of bedrock, and "talus" caves amongst large breakdown rocks and boulders. The chasms provide a micro-climate which supports a pocket of dense, high canopy, subtropical rainforest, and the caves are home to populations of bats and other fauna. The European history of Pilchers Mountain is detailed in chronological order from the early 1800s to the present day. A Plan of Management is in the process of being formulated by stakeholders and interested parties to ensure the continued preservation of the reserve.
Includes: 8 figures (3 maps, 4 photos, 1 diagram), 1 table, 22 refs
Keywords: Pseudokarst, Tectonic Caves, Talus caves, Fissure caves, History, Management, New South Wales
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Title: The abode of malevolent spirits and creatures - Caves in Victorian Aboriginal social organization
Authors: CLARK, Ian D.
Published: 2007, Helictite 40(1):2-10
Abstract by author: A study of Aboriginal associations with Victorian caves finds that there is a rich cultural heritage associated with caves. This association has been found to be rich and varied in which caves and sink holes featured prominently in the lives of Aboriginal people - they were often the abodes of malevolent creatures and spirits and some were associated with important ancestral heroes, traditional harming practices, and some were important in the after death movement of souls to their resting places. Aboriginal names for caves, where known, are discussed.
Includes: 4 figures, 34 refs
Keywords: rock shelters, caves, dark zones, Aboriginal heritage, mythology, Victoria, Australia
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Title: Thinking about Karst and World Heritage
Authors: HAMILTON-SMITH, Elery
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):51-54
Abstract by author: Various aspects of the operation of the World Heritage Convention have been reviewed over the last several years. The actual inscription criteria and process have been changed to reduce the differences between natural and cultural sites. This may well be of benefit to those seeking recognition of karst sites as many such sites have both natural and cultural values. At the same time, every effort is being made to reduce the number of new inscriptions, while at the same time endeavoring to ensure that the list is balanced, representative and credible. Efforts are being made to establish frameworks to enable more adequate assessment of representivity, and this paper will propose and examine a potential framework for cave and karst sites.
Includes: 1 table, 9 refs
Keywords: karst, world heritage convention, assessment framework criteria
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Title: Environmental Reconstruction of Karst using a Honeysuckle species widely used in Traditional Chinese Medicine
Authors: YUNQIU, Xie; CHENG, Zhang; YONG, Lü; ZHENPING, Deng
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):47-50
Abstract by authors: As in the deserts of Northwestern China, there is a need to reconstruct the fragile karst of Southwestern China using sustainable techniques that protect the environment and develop the economy. One means of achieving this is to plant species used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The characteristics of Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, when produced on the Donggangling Formation at Nongla Village in Mashan County, in Guangxi Province of Southwestern China, match those of Honeysuckle grown in traditional production areas of China, and comply with the specification set for the Honeysuckle by the P.R. China Codex. Added properties of the Honeysuckle are the accumulation of phosphorus and potassium, in addition to the accumulation of elements such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and so on. Further discussion considers extending the areas in which this Honeysuckle is currently grown, and its limitations in the karst region of Southwestern China where 60% - 70% of calcareous soil may be suitable for its cultivation.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 7 refs
Keywords: karst, environmental reconstruction, Honeysuckle used in traditional Chinese medicine, Donggangling Formation
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Title: Seasonal Karst Lake Cerknica (Slovenia) : 2000 Years of Man Versus Nature
Authors: KRANJC, Andrej
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):39-46
Abstract by author: The Roman geographer Strabo (63 BC 21 AD) was probably the first to mention Lake Cerknica (Cerkniško Jezero) and the first printed record was published in 1537 (G. Leonberger). The early authors (16th17th C.) just admired it. The next phase can be called the research one. Authors of the 18th century tried to explain the lake's hydrographic regime. With the rise of physiographic movements, the first proposals to change the regime, i.e. to dry up the lake, appeared. Many projects have been suggested; a lot of research and even some practical works were done until the middle of the 20th century. No project was fully implemented because of fear of flooding the capital, Ljubljana. After World War II, the situation changed. Instead of draining the lake, it was proposed to make the lake permanent. The first experiments were not successful and in the 1980s attitudes towards the lake changed. Green and environmental movements prevailed and work began to protect the lake as a natural phenomenon.
Includes: 8 figures, 27 refs
Keywords: polje, engineering works, karst research, history, Slovenia, Cerknica
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Title: Syngenetic Karst in Australia: a review
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(2):27-38
Abstract by author: In syngenetic karst speleogenesis and lithogenesis are concurrent: caves and karst features are forming at the same time as the loose sediment is being cemented into a soft, porous rock. "Eogenetic karst" and "soft-rock karst" are closely related terms for features developed in soft, poorly-consolidated limestones. The distinctive features of syngenetic karst are: shallow horizontal cave systems; a general lack of directed conduits (low irregular chambers occur instead); clustering of caves at the margins of topographic highs or along the coast; paleosoil horizons; vertical solution pipes which locally form dense fields; extensive breakdown and subsidence to form collapse-dominated cave systems; a variety of surface and subsurface breccias and locally large collapse dolines and cenotes; and limited surface sculpturing (karren). These features are best developed in host sediments that have well developed primary matrix permeability and limited secondary cementation (and hence limited mechanical strength), for example dune calcarenites. Certain hydrological environments also assist: invading swamp waters or mixing at a well-developed watertable; or, near the coast, mixing at the top and bottom of a freshwater lens floating on salt water. Where these factors are absent the karst forms tend to be more akin to those of classical hard-rock or telogenetic karst.
Includes: 20 figures, 56 refs
Keywords: syngenetic karst, eogenetic diagenesis, soft-rock karst, dune calcarenite, solution pipes, Australia
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Title: Extended Abstract: Cave Aragonites of New South Wales
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):22-23
Abstract by KGG: Aragonite is unstable in fresh water and usually reverts to calcite, but it is actively depositing as a secondary mineral in the vadose zone of some caves in New South Wales. Aragonite deposits were examined to determine whether the material is or is not aragonite. Substrates to the aragonite were examined, as was the nature of the bedrock. The physical, climatic, chemical and mineralogical influences on calcium carbonate deposition in the caves were investigated. The study sites are all located in Palaeozoic rocks within the Lachlan Fold Belt tectonic region of New South Wales. Several factors were found to be associated with the deposition of aragonite instead of calcite speleothems. They included the presence of ferroan dolomite, calcite-inhibitors (in particular ions of magnesium, manganese, phosphate, sulfate and heavy metals), and both air movement and humidity. Chemical inhibitors work by physically blocking the positions on the calcite crystal lattice which would have otherwise allowed calcite to develop into a larger crystal. Often an inhibitor for calcite has no effect on the aragonite crystal lattice, thus aragonite may deposit where calcite deposition is inhibited. Another association with aragonite in some NSW caves appears to be high evaporation rates allowing calcite, aragonite and vaterite to deposit. Vaterite is another unstable polymorph of calcium carbonate, which reverts to aragonite and calcite over time. Vaterite, aragonite and calcite were found together in cave sediments in areas with low humidity.
Title: Extended Abstract: Ecology and hydrology of a threatened groundwater-dependent ecosystem: the Jewel Cave karst system in Western Australia
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan M.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):21-22
Abstract by KGG: This thesis investigates the hydrology and ecology of a threatened aquatic root mat community in the Jewel Cave karst system in the Leeuwin-Naturaliste Ridge, Western Australia. Development of the karst system dates from the Early Pleistocene and the caves have been available for colonisation by groundwater fauna since that time. Speleogenesis of the watertable maze caves occurred in a flank margin setting during earlier periods of wetter climate and/or elevated base levels. Watertable fluctuations over the last 50 years did not exceed the range experienced in the Quaternary history. The recent groundwater decline in Jewel Cave was not related to rainfall, nor groundwater abstraction nor nearby tree plantations. However, it did coincide with a reduction in fire frequency within the karst catchment. The resultant increase in understorey vegetation and ground litter may have reduced groundwater recharge through increased evapotranspiration and interception of rainfall. The populations of two genera and species of cave dwelling Amphipoda are largely panmictic. Both species have survived lower watertable levels during the Late Pleistocene. A mechanism for the colonization and isolation of populations in caves is proposed. Faunal patterns (including species diversity, species assemblages, habitat associations and biogeography) were related to abiotic environmental parameters. The ecological water requirements of the community were determined as a baseline for evaluation of impacts such as groundwater pollution. If rainfall continues to decline, and the cave watertable declines > 0.5 m below the present level, then the groundwater ecosystem may become more vulnerable to extinction. The taxonomy and distribution of root mat communities is poorly known and a regional-scale survey is required to properly assess their conservation requirements. Meanwhile, conservation actions for the communities need to be focused at the scale of the karst drainage system and catchment area.
Title: A small cave in a basalt dyke, Mt. Fyans, Victoria, Australia
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):17-20
Abstract by author: A small but unusual cave has formed within a large dyke that intrudes a scoria cone at the summit of Mount Fyans, western Victoria. Draining of a still-liquid area, after most of the dyke had solidified, left an open cavity. Features within the cave mimic those of conventional lava caves, and suggest that the lava levels oscillated within the cave. Some smaller fingers of lava that intruded the scoria also have hollow, drained, cores.
Includes: 7 figures, 6 refs
Keywords: pseudokarst, volcanic caves, dyke.
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Title: In Situ Taphonomic Investigation of Pleistocene Large Mammal Bone Deposits from The Ossuaries, Victoria Fossil Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia
Authors: REED, Elizabeth H.
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):5-15
Abstract by author: The Ossuaries within the Victoria Fossil Cave (5U-1) contain a large, virtually untouched deposit of Pleistocene vertebrates. Discovered in the early 1970s, the chamber has been left unexcavated as a 'reference' section of the cave and contains taphonomic features analogous to the formation of other large deposits such as the Fossil Chamber. This paper presents the results of an in situ taphonomic investigation of large mammal fossils from The Ossuaries. The results suggest The Ossuaries acted as a pitfall trap for a range of large Pleistocene mammals, in particular kangaroos. Once accumulated, the skeletons of these animals were subject to burial and dispersal by water and modification by trampling and termite gnawing. The presence of articulated material suggests many animals survived their initial fall, only to wander further into the cave and perish at some distance from the entrance.
Includes: 5 figures, 3 tables, 13 refs
Keywords: karst, cave, taphonomy, palaeontology, mammal, Pleistocene.
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Title: The first Australian record of subterranean guano-collecting ants
Authors: MOULDS, Timothy
Published: 2006, Helictite 39(1):3-4
Abstract by author: An arthropod community was found in guano of the inland cave bat (Vespadelus findlaysoni) roosting in the abandoned Eregunda mine, a 25 m adit located east of Blinman in the central Flinders Ranges, South Australia. This guano community is remarkable because meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus Smith) were observed to enter the mine, collect fresh guano, and carry it back to the nest. This opportunistic behaviour has not previously been reported in Australian or overseas hypogean guano communities. Bat guano is eaten directly by many guanobitic and guanophilic invertebrates as high nitrate food, or, more commonly the more readily digested glycogen rich bacteria and fungus are eaten. Although not strictly a cave, the lack of suitable bat roosts in nearby caves, and the stable environmental conditions present, make this site locally important as a representative hypogean guano arthropod community.
Includes: 1 figure, 7 refs
Keywords: Ant, biospeleology, Flinders Ranges, Formicidae, guano.
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Title: The relationship between local climate and radon concentration in the Temple of Baal, Jenolan Caves, Australia
Authors: WHITTLESTONE, Stewart ; JAMES, Julia ; BARNES, Craig
Published: 2003, Helictite 38(2):39-44
Abstract by authors: Radon measurements were collected over a period of one year in a large chamber known as the Temple of Baal at Jenolan Caves, near Sydney, Australia. Correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall, surface air pressure and temperature confirmed that radon originating from different locations was predominant under different conditions. During periods of low rainfall, radon concentrations varied in strong anti-correlation with the surface air pressure, indicating that most of the radon was coming from remote locations of large pore or void volume in rock of limited permeability. On the other hand, in wet periods the observed radon levels were low and steady, suggesting a local source. In both wet and dry conditions the correlation of radon concentrations with rainfall on a time-scale of a few days was positive, proving that permeability of surface strata affected the ventilation rate in the cave. The study achieved a detailed understanding of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal, and the main conclusion reached was that the magnitude and variation of radon concentrations in the Temple of Baal were closely related to the degree of water saturation in the local surrounds.
Includes: 6 figures, 1 table, 6 refs
Keywords: karst, radon, cave climate
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Title: Nowranie Caves and the Camooweal Karst Area, Queensland: Hydrology, Geomorphology and Speleogenesis, with Notes on Aquatic Biota
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 2003, Helictite 38(2):27-38
Abstract by author: Development of the Nowranie Caves includes both phreatic and vadose components, with prominent influences on cave geomorphology exerted by joints, bedding and past changes in watertable levels. Active circulation is occurring within a phreatic conduit at moderate depth (22-30 m) below the level of the present watertable. Slugs of flood water can penetrate well into the flooded section of the cave, and it appears that dissolutional enlargement of the conduit may be occurring under present conditions. Speleogenesis in Nowranie Caves incorporates deeper phreatic processes in addition to shallow phreatic (i.e. watertable) processes. A series of three fossil, or occasionally re-flooded, phreatic horizontal levels in the Nowranie Caves correspond with similar levels in other Camooweal caves, and reflect a regional pattern and multi stage history of watertable changes linked with cave development. The stacked series of cave levels may reflect episodic uplift, wetter climatic episodes, or a combination of both - possibly dating from early to mid Tertiary times. Caves and dolines are the major points for groundwater recharge in the Camooweal area, and these are susceptible points for injection of contarninants into the groundwater system. A climatic and distributional relict, and locally endemic, fauna is present in the groundwater. The Nowranie Caves, and Camooweal area generally, has conservation significance as a karst hydrogeological and ecological system that has preserved a history of regional landscape and faunal evolution in northern Australia during the Quaternary.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 tables, 19 refs
Keywords: Camooweal, karst, hydrology, geomorphology, speleogenesis, biota
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Title: Palaeokarst in the Noondine Chert in Southwestern Australia: Implications for Water Supply and the Protection of Biodiversity
Authors: APPLEYARD, Steve
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):17-19
Abstract by author: In southwestern Australia, karst features occur in geological formations other than the coastal calcarenites of the Tamala Limestone. The Noondine Chert was formed by the silicification of carbonate rocks and contains relict carbonate textures and palaeokarst features such as intense brecciation and the presence of subsurface voids. This geological formation is an important aquifer to the east of the Perth Basin where groundwater resources are otherwise limited, and the aquifer is highly vulnerable to contamination from agricultural land use. The Noondine Chert may also contain a rich stygofauna. This has not been taken into account in groundwater protection policies, and needs to be assessed as a matter of urgency.
Includes: 1 figure, 15 refs
Keywords: palaeokarst, stygofauna, groundwater, managemen
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Title: Systematic composition and distribution of Australian cave collembolan faunas with notes on exotic taxa
Authors: GREENSLADE, Penelope
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):11-16
Abstract by author: Collembola (springtails) have been collected from caves in Tasmania, northwestern Western Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland more intensively in recent years than in the past. A sharp boundary in the composition of faunas of southern and northern Australia was found with the highest diversity of troglobitic forms in southeastern Australia and Tasmania. No extreme examples of troglobitic genera have yet been found in Western Australia. A single record of Cyphoderopsis was made from Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, a common genus in caves in Sumatra. The Jenolan cave system has been most completely sampled with nearly 100 samples from fourteen caves. This system contains over twenty species of which three genera, Adelphoderia, Oncopodura and a new genus near Kenyura, are exclusively troglobitic with locally endemic species of conservation and phylogenetic interest. Compared with some Tasmanian caves, the Jenolan fauna appears to harbour more species that are likely to have been introduced.
Includes: 2 figures, 3 tables, 29 refs
Keywords: Collembola, caves, Australia, distribution
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Title: Cave Temperatures at Naracoorte Caves
Authors: SANDERSON, Ken ; BOURNE, Steven
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):7-10
Abstract by authors: Temperatures in four different caves at Naracoorte were logged for periods of up to two years, during 1998-2001. In Bat Cave temperatures near ground level were 19.0-21.1°C in the maternity chamber, and 10.3-15.6°C near the entrance. In Victoria Fossil Cave temperatures near the fossil chamber were 16.9-18.3°C. In Blanche Cave and the outer chamber of Robertson Cave temperatures were 9.4-15.0°C, with temperatures in the inner chamber of Robertson Cave 14.2-15.0°C. Cave chambers with little air flow had seasonally stable temperatures, and those with high air flow showed seasonal temperature variations of 5-6°C.
Includes: 6 figures, 1 table, 5 refs, 1 data file
Keywords: cave temperature, air flow, Naracoorte Caves
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Title: Chromophores Producing Blue Speleothems at Cliefden, NSW
Authors: TURNER, Ken
Published: 2002, Helictite 38(1):3-6
Abstract by author: Osborne (1978) has described in some detail the blue stalactites that occur in Murder and Boonderoo Caves at Cliefden, NSW and reports "that the colour is due to some impurity in the aragonite and not to refractive effects". In this study, small samples from the Boonderoo and Taplow Maze blue speleothems have been chemically analysed. Based on these chemical analyses it is suggested that the major chromophore is copper, with secondary contributions from chromium (Taplow Maze only) and perhaps nickel.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 colour photo (cover), 2 tables, 7 refs
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Title: Subterranean Fauna of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean
Authors: HUMPHREYS, W.F.; EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):59-74
Abstract by authors: The subterranean environment of Christmas Island is diverse and includes freshwater, marine, anchialine, and terrestrial habitats. The cave fauna comprises swiftlets, and a diverse assemblage of invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic, which includes a number of rare and endemic species of high conservation signicance. At least twelve species are probably restricted to subterranean habitats and are endemic to Christmas Island. Previously poorly known, the cave fauna of Christmas Island is a signicant component of the island's biodiversity, and a signicant cave fauna province in an international context. The cave fauna and habitats are sensitive to disturbance from a number of threatening processes, including pollution, deforestation, mining, feral species and human visitors.
Includes: 5 tables, 2 photos, 66 refs, 1 appendix
Keywords: Island karst, Biospeleology, stygofauna, troglobites, anchialine, scorpion, Procarididae
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Title: Karst Features of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):41-58
Abstract by author: Christmas Island (in the Indian Ocean) is an uplifted, composite, reef-carbonate island with a volcanic core. The coast is mostly cliffed and rises steeply via a series of terraces to a central phosphate-blanketed plateau. In spite of the high rainfall, there is little surface water as drainage is underground and karstic - it is initially stored in an epikarst aquifer, then follows the limestone/volcanic contact out to the island edge to emerge at major conduit springs. These springs are mostly at or below sea level, but some perched springs occur where the volcanic rocks appear at the surface. Caves occur at the present coast, as uplifted coastal caves, on the plateau, and there are a few pseudokarst caves. Cave development involves mixing zones between fresh and sea water in the coastal zone, and between vadose and phreatic waters perched on the volcanic rocks beneath the plateau. Cave locations and form are controlled by the rock structure (especially jointing) the location of the volcanic contact, and the combination of uplift with present and past sea levels - which controls the location of the mixing zone.
Includes: 4 maps, 4 figs, 2 tables, 12 photos, 31 refs, 1 appendix
Keywords: island karst, caves, tropical karst, Indian Ocean
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Title: Searching for Water on Christmas Island
Authors: BARRETT, Peter J.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):37-39
Abstract by author: A hundred years of searching for underground water supplies for the settlement and mine operations on Christmas Island has involved dug wells, drilling, cave exploration and geophysics. Water has been extracted from wells, drill holes, springs and caves. The main production at present is from a set of cave streams on the plateau.
Includes: 1 map, 1 photo
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Title: The History of Christmas Island and the Management of its Karst Features
Authors: MEEK, Paul D.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(2):31-36
Abstract by author: Christmas Island is an external Territory of Australia with a history pre-dating that of mainland Australia. It hosts a diverse range of endemic and native terrestrial, subterranean and aquatic flora and fauna with Australian, Indo-Malesian and Pacific affinities. The Island has survived the impacts experienced on other tropical islands as a result of human settlement and is a highly valued ecological asset to Australia. The karst environment has been under-valued as an ecological entity until recently when extensive speleological surveys were conducted. These surveys were a part of broader attempts to prepare a management plan to conserve the values of the karst environment.
Includes: 1 map, 2 photos, 21 refs
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Title: Karst Geology of Wellington Caves: a review
Authors: OSBORNE, R.A.L.
Published: 2001, Helictite 37(1):3-12
Abstract by author: After 170 years of scientific investigation and speculation, significant problems in the karst geology of Wellington Caves remain unsolved. Work in progress is addressing issues relating to: the role of the geological structure in cave development; the mechanism of cave formation; the palaeontology, stratigraphy and sedimentology of the cave sediments; the origin of the phosphate deposits and the relationship between the caves and the surrounding landscape. Little progress has been made in understanding the hydrology of the karst or the meteorology of the caves. These latter problems will require long-term monitoring and data collection, which has yet to commence.
Keywords: caves, speleogenesis, cave sediments, vertebrate fossils, Wellington Caves
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Title: Review: What is karst?
Authors: GOEDE, Albert
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):42
Abstract by KGG: A review of a paper by Doerr, S.H., 1999, Karst-like landforms and hydrology in quartzites of the Venezuelan Guyana shield: pseudokarst or "real" karst? Zeitschrift fur Geomorphology, 43(1), 1-17. The erosion process appears to involve solution of the silica, not just weathering of the cement.
Title: Review: Evolution of caves and the inception horizon hypothesis
Authors: GOEDE, Albert
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):41-42
Abstract by KGG: Review of a paper by OSBORNE, R.A., 1999: The inception horizon hypothesis in vertical to steeply-dipping limestone: applications in New South Wales, Australia. Cave and Karst Science, 26(1), 5-12.
Includes: 2 refs
Title: Thermoluminescence dating of dune ridges in western Victoria
Authors: WHITE, Susan
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):38-40
Abstract by author: Absolute dating of the Pleistocene dune ridges of southwestern Victoria establishes a time frame for speleogenesis of syngenetic karst in such dune calcarenites. The dunes were deposited during the late mid-Pleistocene.
Includes: map; 9 refs
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Title: Records of the Tasmanian cave fauna known or purported to be in the South Australian Museum
Authors: CLARKE, Arthur
Published: 2000, Helictite 36(2):23-37
Abstract by KGG: A detailed list of Tasmanian cave invertebrate specimens supposedly held in the South Australian Museum, sorted by species and also by karst area. Records indicate that the South Australian Museum collection should contain at least 334 specimens, represented by 41 species from 9 karst areas and 23 caves in Tasmania; over 40% were not located.
Includes: fig; 26 refs
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Title: Mud speleothems in a west Victorian cave
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G.
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):18
Abstract by GJM: Describes mud stalactites in a cave at Drik Drik, western Vic. Suggests a possible mode of formation.
Title: Christmas Island cave studies
Authors: GRIMES, Ken G. ; HUMPHREYS, William F.
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):17-18
Abstract by KGG: Summary of karst features and karst biology of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean). Limestone caps a basalt volcanic seamont. Coastal caves entered from sea cliffs. Uplifted coastal caves reflect past sea levels. Also plateau caves, fissure caves and one cave in basalt. Subterranean fauna was sampled via caves, boreholes and springs. Fauna includes swiftlets and a diverse assemblage of invertebrates, both terrestrial and aquatic (including anchialine). At least 12 underground species endemic to island.
Title: Sand speleothems: an Australian example
Authors: GRIMES, K.G.
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):11-16
Abstract by author: Sand speleothems have formed in sea caves at Loch Ard Gorge, Victoria, Australia, by the localised precipitation of calcium carbonate in loose sand that fills the caves. Calcite-saturated waters have entered the caves from the surrounding porous limestone, either dripping onto the sand, or seeping directly into it from the walls. Removal of the uncemented sand has exposed the cemented formations which have shapes analogous to those of conventional stalagmites, stalactites and shelves.
Includes: 7 figs, 10 refs
Keywords: caves, karst, sand speleothems, concretions, Australia
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Title: Ribbon helictites: a new category
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 1999, Helictite 36(1):3-10
Abstract by author: Describes the size, shape, abundance and location of ribbon helictites and proposes possible growth mechanisms for them. SEM photographs of surface of a ribbon helictite show an unusual crystal form for a calcite speleothem, together with apparent etching and pitting of surfaces. These surfaces exhibit some features found in organically deposited calcite. Further optical work revealed that stem of ribbon helictites is composed of a twinned pair of crystal aggregates, with stem's central canal lying in this twin plane. The ribbon also appears to exhibit twinning. Oval features on ribbon's surface appear to be twinned aggregates, originating from ribbon's central canal. It is proposed that ribbon helictites form by two growth stages: development of stem and then a ribbon, with influences from acidic solutions. Overall shape is strongly controlled by crystal habit.
Includes: 15 figs, 8 refs
Keywords: helictite, calcite, twinning, Jenolan, lublinite
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Title: Nineteenth Century Paintings, Drawings and Engravings of Australian Caves
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1997, Helictite 35(1&2):12-38
Abstract by author: Non-photographic images of Australian caves and karst from the 19th century are catalogued, together with notes on sources and artists.
Includes: 243 catalogue entries, 15 figs, notes on 3 sources and 46 artists
Title: Perceptions of Australian Caves in the 19th Century: The Visual Record
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1997, Helictite 35(1&2):5-11
Abstract by author: Visual images, however produced, provide a record of how the physical world is perceived. All images of the natural world convey both a 'scientific' objectivist perception and an 'aesthetic' subjectivist view, each in differing proportions according to the perception of the person creating the image. This paper examines and assesses the extent to which images of Australian caves produced during the 19th century can illuminate our understanding of how Australias perceived caves at the time. Although providing some overview of all images, the paper gives primary attention to non-photographic renditions.
Includes: 4 figs, 15 refs
Title: Review: "The caves of Thailand" by John R. Dunkley, 1995, 124 pages; "Thailand caves catalogue" by John R. Dunkley, 1994, 44 pages; "Caves of North-West Thailand" by John R. Dunkley and John B. Brush (eds.), 1986, 62 pages
Authors: MIXON, Bill
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):38
Abstract by GNB: All three books are A4 size softbound, available from the Helictite Commission of Australian Speleological Federation Inc. Orignally published by Speleological Research Council.
Title: Radon and its decay products in caves
Authors: BARNES, Craig M. ; JAMES, Julia M. ; WHITTLESTONE, Stewart
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(2):33-37
Abstract by RB: Investigations into radon and its progeny in Australian caves are showing the presence within the caves of high levels of these substances. Described here are the factors that have been shown in studies worldwide to affect the levels of radon and radon decay products over time within cave systems.
Includes: 3 figs
Title: The Stromatolites of the Cenote Lakes of the Lower South East of South Australia
Authors: THURGATE, Mia E.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(1):17-25
Abstract by RB: Stromatolite are lithified, laminated, organosedimentary deposits. Preliminary examination of eight cenote lakes near Mt. Gambier has revealed the presence of tens of thousands of actively - forming stromatolites. Based on the external morphology, 14 different types of stromatolites have been identified, columnar growth forms are most common. Three genus of Diatom and three genus of Cyanobacteria are the most likely responsible for stromatolite development.
Includes: 3 figs, 1 table, 8 plates, 18 refs
Title: Vadose weathering of sulfides and limestone cave development, evidence from eastern Australia
Authors: OSBORNE, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1996, Helictite 34(1):5-15
Abstract by RB: Many significant limestone caves in eastern Australia (particularly New South Wales, Tasmania) are associated with sulfide deposits and other ore bodies. These deposits have a variety of origins (hydrothermal, paleokarst, volcaniclastic). The sulfides weather on exposure to oxygen - rich vadose seepage water, lowering the water pH and releasing sulfate and magnesium which can lead to the deposition of gypsum and aragonite speleothems. Removal of weathered ores and ore - bearing paleokarst sediments in the vadose zone is, in places, an important mechanism for the formation of large caverns.
Includes: 12 figs, 32 refs
Title: Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology of Gunung Tempurung, Perak, Malaysia
Authors: GILLESON, David ; HOLLAND, Ernst ; DAVIES, Gareth
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(2):35-42
Abstract by authors: Gunung Tempurung is a 600-metre high limestone tower in the Kinta Valley located to the south of the city of Ipoh, Malaysia. The tower contains at least one extensive cave system, Gua Tempurung, which has a length of approximately 4800 metres and a vertical range of about 200 metres. The tower is an erosional remnant of a thick sequence of Silurian - Permian Limestones initially formed as a shelf deposit near an ancient coastline. The carbonate rocks lie adjacent to, and are laterally bounded by, Late Mesozoic granite plutoniic rocks emplaced by activity related to the Late Triassic uplift from plate boundary stresses along the western edge of the Malay Peninsular. The limestones have been folded and compressed between the granites and have been altered by contact metamorphism to marbles and skarn. Hydrothermal mineralisation of the limestone host rock has yeilded deposits of tin, with some tungsten minerals and other minor ores. In the central part of the karst tower a river-cave system, Gua Tempurung, developed from local damming of the north and south outlets of a small catchment derived from the granite upland area to the east. In several locations inside the dry upper chambers of the cave, vein deposits of tin (cassiterite) are evident in walls and ceilings. Additionally alluvial tin deposits derived from the Old Alluvium are present in the cave.
Includes: 5 figs, 2 plates, 7 refs
Title: Investigations of the Wyanbene Caves Area
Authors: ROWLING, Jill
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(2):29-34
Abstract by author: This paper discusses preliminary findings concerning the geological structure of these and other caves in the area. The other caves include Clarke's Cave, Ridge Mine Pot, Goat Cave and several unnamed caves and springs. Wyanbene Cave is a streamway cave, formed primarily along a south striking joint in Late Silurian limestone. Drainage of the surface above Wyanbene Cave is affected by the south west striking joints of a Late Devonian conglomerate cap. Secondary deposits in the cave are affected by hydrothermal ore deposits.
Includes: 5 figs, 4 refs
Title: Cocklebiddy Shells
Authors: BROWN, Rosemary
Published: 1996, Helictite 33(1):19-21
Abstract by author: Five genera of shells were collected from the sediment around Cocklebiddy Cave lake in the Nullarbor Plain (Western Australia). All shells belong to small modern gastropod terrestrial snails.
Title: Early Accounts of Caves in Mauritius
Authors: MIDDLETON, Greg
Published: 1995, Helictite 33(1):5-18
Abstract by author: A survey is attempted of published accounts of lava caves on the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius up to the early 20th century. A number of writers mentioned caves as part of the natural curiosities of the island, though there was a high level of information recycling. The earliest written cave account dates from 1769; the cave it relates to is also the most written-about and, on current knowledge, is the oldest on the island. On neighbouring Rodrigues the earliest record is thought to date from 1789.
Includes: maps, photos, illustrations
Title: Siluro - Devonian Bungonia Group, Southern Highlands, NSW
Authors: BAUER, J. A.
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(2):25-34
Abstract by author: The Bungonia Group is a sequence of Late Silurian - Early Devonian biostromal limestone, sandstone and shale constituting marine fill of the Wollondilly Basin, an extensional structure initiated during the Mid-Silurian. The Bungonia Limestone is elevated to Group status based on detailed mapping and analysis of the facies and faunal assemblages.
Includes: 5 figs, including 2 maps, 1 table
Title: Crombie's Cave. A granite cave in New England, NSW
Authors: OLLIER, C. D. ; SMITH, J. M. B.
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(1):17-20
Abstract by author: A small cave near Armidale formed when Powers Creek found an underground route through weathered joints in granite, and enlarged by stream abrasion.
Includes: map, photos, survey
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Title: The Effects of Fire on Soluble Rock Landscapes
Authors: HOLLAND, Ernst
Published: 1994, Helictite 32(1):3-10
Abstract by author: The spalling of limestone as a result of fire is discussed. Numerous observations throughout Australian karsts show that the effects of fire on limestone vary with its type, the intensity of the fire and the nature of the limestone weathering. An associated laboratory study of the effects of heat on limestone is also discussed.
Includes: 3 figs, 2 tables, 8 plates, 20 refs
Title: Abstract: Insect larvae and tufa formation at Louie Creek, Northwest Queensland, Australia IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: DRYSDALE, Russell
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):46
Abstract by author, RM: Although insect larvae have been previously recorded in tufas, no studies have been carried out which examine their role in tufa formation. It is clear from preliminary results from Louie Creek that these organisism are in some cases very important in tufa growth and development.
Title: Abstract: The Invertebrate Cave Fauna of Wombeyan IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: EBERHARD, Stefan
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by RM: 57 species of cave dwelling invertebrates are recorded.
Title: Abstract: Speleogenesis in aeolian Calcarenite: a case study in Western Victoria IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: WHITE, Susan
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45-46
Abstract by author, RM: The simultaneous lithification of the carbonate dunes into aeolian calcarenite rock and the development of solutional karst features in the dunes is the characteristic feature of the speleogenesis of the area.
Title: Abstract: Distribution of Bryophites on limestones in Eastern Australia IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: DOWNING, A. J.
Published: 1993, Helictite 32(2):45
Abstract by author, RM: Comparisons of bryophytes on limestone and nonlimestone substrates at Jenolan Caves, London Bridge, and Attunga.
Title: Abstract: The Gregory Karst and Caves, Northern Territory IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: DUNKLEY, John R.
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):45
Abstract by author, RM: Located in the Gregory National Park between Katherine and Kununurra, this area has been investigated by speleologists since 1990 and this is a preliminary report drawing attention to a significant new tropical karst.
Title: Abstract: Eastern Australian Quaternary mammal faunas: their palaeoclimatic and faunistic setting - and their potential IN: Proceedings of the Wombeyan Karst Workshop November 19-22, 1993
Authors: RIDE, W.D.L.
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(2):44-45
Abstract by author, RM: The availability of extensive palaeoclimatic information and the realisation that the cave deposits of eastern Australia extend back into the Tertiary, and the recognition that virtually the whole of the characteristic marsupial fauna are arid adapted, it seems likely that the caves have the potential to illustrate the whole of the spectacular and rapid Australian radiation after the loss of the rainforests.
Title: Karsting around for bones: Aborigines and karst caves in South Eastern Australia
Authors: SPATE, Andy
Published: 1993, Helictite 31(1):13-22
Abstract by RM: Whilst there appears to be a popular belief that Australian Aborigines viewed caves with some trepidation there is much anecdotal and physical evidence that karst caves were used for occupation, art and funery practices. This paper reviews the past and modern literature on Aboriginal use of karst caves on the Tablelands and immediate surrounds. About ten occupation and a lesser number of disposition sites are known as are hand stencils and abstract engraved art. More representational art has been reported in the past and skeletal material of accidental or unknown origin reported widely. Dated sites are few ranging from about 1500 years BP to as old as 23000 years BP.
Includes: map, 49 refs
Title: An unusual subjacent karst doline at East Buchan, Victoria
Authors: DAVEY, Adrian G ; WHITE, Susan
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):41-43
Abstract by author, RM: A small subjacent karst doline is described which is expressed in surface outcrop of volcanics overlying limestone. The doline is close to the fault contact between the karstic and non - karstic rocks. Stratigraphic inversion resulting from thrusting of the volcanics over the limestone on an inclined fault plane gives the unusual result of a surface doline form expressed in rocks which are older than the underlying karst rocks, solution of which is responsible for the surface form.
Includes: 1 fig
Title: Radon hazard in caves: a monitoring and management strategy
Authors: LYONS, Ruth G.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):33-40
Abstract by author, RM: Factors governing the accumulation of radon in caves are discussed. Preliminary measurements in some Australian caves show levels which vary by factors of 4 (seasonal) and 75 (diurnal), with the upper levels approaching recommended maximum exposure levels for some tourist cave guides.
Includes: 7 figs, 3 tables, 19 refs
Title: Karst geomorphology and biospeleology at Vanishing Falls, South-West Tasmania
Authors: EBERHARD, Rolan ; EBERHARD, Stefan ; WONG, Vera
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(2):25-32
Abstract by author, RM: A speleological expedition to Vanishing Falls explored a 2.3km long cave associated with the underground course of the Salisbury River, and provided the first systematic documentation of karst features and cave ecology in this remote area. The caves host a fauna comprising at least 30 taxa, of which probably more than 14 are troglobitic or stygobiontic. This fauna exhibits a high degree of troglomorphy, with some species likely to be endemic to the Vanishing Falls karst.
Includes: maps, figs, surveys
Title: A new topofil
Authors: WARILD, Alan
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):20-23
Abstract by author: A light, compact, reliable instrument for surveying difficult vertical caves has been a drean of cave surveyors for many years. The topofil described goes a long way towards fulfilling that ideal, although there are still problems of availability and user error. Even so, the author is of the firm opinion that topofils are ideal for expedition and deep cave surveys.
Includes: 2 figs, 5 refs
Title: Some Coastal Landforms in Aeolian Calcarenite, Flinders Island, Bass Strait
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):11-19
Abstract by RB: The development of solutional landforms in Pleistocene calcarenite on Flinders Is. (Tasmania) is described - particularly at Cave Bay and Fotheringate Bay. Radiometric dating of speleothems indicate that the cavity in which it formed was in existence during the late Last Glacial Stage and was invaded by the sea during the Holocene.
Includes: 3 figs, 55 refs
Title: The phototropic phytospeleothems of Moss Palace, Mole Creek, Tasmania
Authors: LICHON, Michael J.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):8-10
Abstract by author: In Moss Palace, the presence of unusual speleothems further justifies the conservation of Dogs Head Hill karst at Mole Creek, Tasmania. A "symbiotic" carbonate deposition and growth of the moss Distichophyllum microcarpum results in phototropic phytospeleothems, in the form of fan-shaped erratics.
Includes: 2 plates, 2 figs, 10 refs
Title: A giant Late Pleistocene halite speleothem from Webbs cave, Nullarbor Plain, Southeastern Western Australia
Authors: GOEDE, Albert ; ATKINSON, Tim C. ; ROWE, Peter J.
Published: 1992, Helictite 30(1):3-7
Abstract by authors: A giant halite stalagmite found in a broken condition, believed to be tallest recorded anywhere, collected from Webbs Cave, Mundrabilla area, Nullarbor. Reconstruction showed it had been 2780 mm tall. Collapse due to water percolating down the side and dissolving cylindrical hole near base. Analysis of bulk sample indicates late Pleistocene deposition between 20 and 37 ka. Previous dating of a small halite speleothem from Webbs Cave showed Holocene period of halite deposition dated at 2.5 +/- 1.2 ka.
Includes: 2 figs, 1 table, 17 refs
Title: Caves of Eastern Fiji
Authors: NUNN, Patrick, D. ; OLLIER, Cliff ; RAWAICO, N. Bola
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(2):42-47
Abstract by authors: A number of caves from the islands of Lakeba, Nayau, Namuka and Moce in the Lau Islands Group, Fiji, are described and mapped for the first time. Limestone caves appear to be typical of those coral islands. Geomorphically they reveal that a first phase of cave development was phreatic, followed by an extended period of vadose development, and some caves are still active water courses. All the islands indicate uplift relative to sea level. Minor volcanic caves are found on Moce Island. Social requirements for cave exploration in Fiji are outlined.
Title: On Natural Cave Markings
Authors: BEDNARIK, Robert G.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(2):27-41
Abstract by author: This paper attempts to bring some light into the question of distinguishing petroglyphs from natural markings in caves, by exploring the range of the latter. Some types of natural markings resemble simple linear rock incisions and other forms of petroglyphs. A variety of natural processes causing cave markings are considered. An evaluation of their characteristics shows that it should be possible to confidently identify the cause of parietal markings in the vast majority of cases.
Title: The sulfate speleothems of Thampanna cave, Nullarbor Plain, Australia
Authors: JAMES, Julia M.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):19-23
Abstract by RB: Examination of gypsum speleothems and chemical analysis of the cave drip waters (ions to chloride mole ratios, tot. dissolved solids, nitrate) confirm that the major source of the sulfate in Thampanna cave (Western Australia) is from seawater transported by rain.
Includes: 4 tables, 2 figs
Title: A geological review of Abercrombie caves
Authors: OSBORNE, R.A.L.
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):8-18
Abstract by RB: Abercrombie caves (near Jenolan, N.S.W.) have developed in metamorphosed marble forming part of the Upper Silurian Kildrummie Formation. Geological structure and changes in lithology have strongly influenced cave development with pyritic thinly bedded units in the marble being preferentially eroded. The Abercrombie Arch originated as a through cave in Pliocene times, 4-5 millions years ago.
Includes: 7 figs, location and geological maps, map of Grove cave
Title: The Mount Cripps karst, North Western Tasmania
Authors: SHANNON, Henry ; DUTTON, Bevis ; HEAP, David ; SALT, Frank
Published: 1991, Helictite 29(1):3-7
Abstract by RB: An Ordovician limestone karst area of 20 sqkm is presented. Characteristics: a large scale closed depression; a high density of caves formed by autogenic percolation with limited surface drainage; a polygonal karst terrain. The evolution of this karst was subject to multiple Pleistocene glaciations. At present 3 cave systems over 0,5 km in length are known, the deepest cave is -80 m.
Includes: 3 figs
Title: A computer program for 3D cave maps
Authors: WARILD, Alan
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):41-45
Abstract by RB: Capabilities and limitation of Delta Graph, a graphing and drawing program for MacIntosh are discussed, with examples.
Title: A preliminary study of lead in cave spider's webs
Authors: JAMES, Julia M. ; GRAY, Michael ; NEWHOUSE, David J.
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):37-40
Abstract by RB: The spider Badumna socialis constructs large communal webs on the roof of several caves in New South Wales. An increase in the number of webs containing dead spiders and falling from the Grand Arch (Jenolan) was observed. One theory is that fumes or lead from the large number of cars driving through the arch is a contributing factor. A preliminary study analysing the Pb content of webs in 4 arches and caves does not confirm a lead intoxication.
Includes: 2 tables
Title: Karst water chemistry - Limestone Ranges, Western Australia
Authors: ELLAWAY, M. ; SMITH, D.I. ; GILLIESON, D.S. ; GREENAWAY, M.A.
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(2):25-36
Abstract by RB: Detailed chemical and physical analyses are presented for 42 karst waters (springs, groundwater) sampled in the Kimberley region in northern Western Australia (Devonian Reef complex) during May '88. A general pattern of physical and chemical effects (e.g. tufa deposition) was found.
Includes: 5 tables, 3 figs
Title: Bathymetry and origin of Lake Timk, South West Tasmania
Authors: KIERNAN, Kevin
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):18-21
Abstract by author: The bathymetry of Lake Timk suggests that it is a glacially over-deepened rock basin but one which owes much of its form to preglacial karst processes. Underground drainage from the lake forms part of an integrated karst conduit system. The lake bed does not provide the base level of vadose circulation in the karst at the present time as at least one negotiable cave extends under the lake.
Includes: 3 plates, 3 figs
Title: The changed route of the Grand Arch Stream, Jenolan - more evidence
Authors: SHAW, Trevor
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):15-17
Abstract by RB: Based on historical data from 1879 to 1895.
Includes: 2 plates
Title: The Undara lava tube system and its caves
Authors: ATKINSON, Anne
Published: 1990, Helictite 28(1):3-14
Abstract by RB: In the lava flow from the Undara volcano, McBride Basalt Province, North Queensland, more than 61 arches and caves have been discovered and over 6 km of cave passages has been surveyed; the longest cave is 1,35 km. The various collapse depressions adjacent to or aligned with have been also examined. The feature of the caves and arches are described in detail.
Includes: 13 plates, 6 figs, 2 tables
Title: Cavernicolous Spiders (Arancae) from Undara, Queensland and Cape Range, Western Australia
Authors: Gray, M.R.
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):87-89
Abstract by author: Two small collections of cavernicolous spiders from Undara, N.E. Queensland and Cape Range, W.A. are compared and their relationships are discussed. Cave adapted species are recorded for the families Ctenidae, Zodariidae, Nesticidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae and Desidae.
Includes: 1 table, 6 refs
Keywords: Ctenidae, Zodariidae, Nesticidae, Mysmenidae, Anapidae, Desidae
Title: Drought Damage in a Tasmanian Rainforest on Limestone
Authors: Duncan, Fred; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):83-86
Abstract by authors: Widespread but patchily distributed drought death of forest trees occurred in early 1988 on a limestone ridge at Mole Creek in Tasmania. A close juxtaposition of damaged and undamaged vegetation probably reflects differences in the speed of soil moisture decline down the length of individual soil-filled solution tubes in which trees are rooted. Possible palaeoecological, geomorphological and sivicultural implications are briefly reviewed.
Includes: 5 refs
Title: Data Handling Techniques for Cave Survey Processing
Authors: Vaughan-Taylor, Keir
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):72-82
Abstract by author: Survey processing programs require time consuming manual organisation of data, to ensure that processing takes place in a particular order. With appropriate data input techniques, data structures internal to a program and the use of recursive languages the need to order and pre-process data can be eliminated.
Includes: 3 figures, 6 refs
Title: Karst Features in Pleistocene Dunes, Bats Ridges, Western Victoria
Authors: White, Susan
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(2):53-71
Abstract by author: Karst features occur in Pleistocene aeolian calcarenite dunes at Bats Ridge near Portland, Victoria. The surficial and underground features show that the caves are sinuous shallow systems often with a number of entrances. Passage shape is often modified by collapse. Characteristic features such as speleothems, clastic sediments, solution pipes and foibes are described, especially "moonmilk". Syngenetic karst processes are briefly discussed.
Includes: 6 figures, 4 photos, 45 refs
Keywords: Pleistocene dune karst features, Speleothems, Clastic sediments, Foibes, Solution pipes
Title: Caves of Lukwi - Western Province, Papua New Guinea
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Bonwick, Mark ; Nieuwendyk, Peter ; Martin, David J. ; Pawih, Bernard ; Slade, Martin B. ; Smith, Graeme B.
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(1):13-50
Abstract by authors: In this paper the caves of Lukwi valley in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea are introduced. The caves were explored in January, May, and June 1985 at the request of Ok Tedi Mining Limited. Seventy seven karst features are described and are located on the surface map of the Lukwi valley. Surveys of the major caves are presented. Descriptions of the caves include geological, geomorphological, hydrological and biological observations. The quality of the Lukwi caves is assessed relative to other known caves in Papua New Guinea.
Includes: 17 figures, 10 photos, 12 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Drainage Evolution in a Tasmanian Glaciokarst
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1989, Helictite 27(1):2-12
Abstract by author: The intensively glaciated mountains of the Picton Range - Mt. Bobs area in southwestern Tasmania contain prominent karst features that have been developed in carbonate formations of Devonian, Ordovician and possibly Precambrian age. This paper reviews the extent of the karst and glacial features and records the tracing of the underground drainage from the alpine Lake Sydney. Glacial erosion has exposed areas of limestone to karstification and glacial diversion of drainage has played a critical role in the evolution of the present underground drainage patterns. Prior to the late Last Glacial Stage the deflection of marginal meltwaters from the former Farmhouse Creek Glacier against the Burgess - Bobs Saddle led to the development of an underground breach of a major surface drainage divide. Subglacial or submarginal meltwaters associated with a much smaller glacier that developed in the same valley during the late Last Glacial Stage probably played a significant role in the breaching of a minor divide within the Farmhouse Creek catchment. This led to the development of an underground anabranch of Farmhouse Creek that by-passes the glacial Pine Lake. However, it is possible that the latter diversion is entirely Holocene in age and is related to postglacial dilation of the limestone rather than meltwater flows.
Includes: 1 figure, 22 refs
Keywords: Karst Geomorphology, Karst Hydrology, Glacial Geomorphology, Glaciation, Glaciokarstic Drainage Evolution.
Title: Wheres the Histo? Histoplasma in Chillagoe Caves area, North Queensland, Australia.
Authors: Carol, Eileen M.
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(2):26-36
Abstract by author: Ideal climatic and ecological conditions in many caves in the Chillagoe area suggest the existence of Histoplasma capsulatum. A study in progress proposes to identify those caves that may be reservoirs for the organism, thus presenting a potential health risk for cave visitors. Soil samples collected from caves containing bat and bird (swiftlet) populations are being processed by the Division of Mycotic Diseases, at the Center for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia. Preliminary results from 15 caves have been negative, thus a more precise technique will be utilised in further collections. Intradermal histoplasmin skin testing of cavers intends to identify the possibility of cave exploration as one source of Histoplasma capsulatum exposure.
Includes: 34 refs
Title: The Geomorphology of the Jenolan Caves Area
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988 , Helictite 26(2):6-21
Abstract by author: The Jenolan Caves occur in a small impounded fluviokarst developed in limestone of late Silurian age. This paper reviews present knowledge of the geomorphology of Jenolan. The surface and underground geomorphology has been strongly influenced by the lithology and structure of the limestone and the non-carbonate rocks that surround the karst. There is evidence in the present geomorphology of the inheritance of influences from palaeo landscapes. Abundant surficial and cave sediments reflect slope gradients and climatic conditions that have existed in the past. Despite the very limited size of the limestone outcrop there is a great variety in the karst, including many kilometres of underground passage and a range of cave morphologies and clastic and chemical sediments underground.
Includes: 3 figures, 28 refs
Title: The Source of the Jenolan River
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):39-42
Abstract by author: Geomorphological and Hydrological investigation of un-mapped limestone outcrops and enclosed depressions that occur between North Wiburds Bluff and the headwaters of Bindo Creek has confirmed the presence of significant karst well to the north of the boundary of the Jenolan Caves Reserve and that karst drainage could conceivably breach the Great Dividing Range. The limestone becomes progressively less well dissected northwards with the karst being very subdued at the northern end of the belt. Fluoroscein testing has shown that a streamsink at the southern end of this area drains directly to Central River in Mammoth Cave, and thence to imperial Cave and Blue Lake. This indicates that at least some of the limestone in this area is continuous beneath the surficial covers with the main Northern Limestone rather than being a discrete lens. The situation has important management implications in view of expanding forestry operations in the area since these have the potential to seriously increase the sediment load of waters that pass through wild caves and the Jenolan tourist caves complex.
Includes: 10 refs
Title: Measurement of Small Changes in Pressure of Cave Air Using an Air Barometer
Authors: Halbert, Erik
Published: 1988 , Helictite 26(1):32-38
Abstract by author: This paper describes an extremely simple form of barometer which is capable of measuring changes in air pressure of less than five pascals. The principle of operation, construction and use are described and examples are given of its use both inside and outside the cave environment.
Includes: 2 tables, 2 figures, 9 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Mangroves, Mountains and Munching Molluscs: The Evolution of a Tropical Coastline
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):16-31
Abstract by author: The highly scenic Andaman coast of peninsular Thailand is locally dominated by steep limestone hills and karst towers that rise from broad alluvial plains, from mangrove swamps or from the sea. The karst terrain stretches north and west across the Malay peninsula to the Gulf of Siam. Some of the variations in the style of this karst have resulted from lithological and structural factors. However, steepening of the slopes by marine erosion at times of formerly high sea levels has probably been important to the development of the most spectacular part of this landscape. Notches and caves cut in limestone towers up to 10-15m above present sea level may represent the maximum transgression of the Last Interglacial. Morphological evidence hints that former shorelines may now lie hundreds of metres above present sea level due to diastrophic movements during the late Cainozoic. However, this evidence is equivocal and it has been argued that similar landforms in neighboring parts of Malaysia may be the result of terrestrial planation processes that operated independent of sea level during the Pleistocene glacial stages.
Includes: 1 figure, 5 photos, 72 refs
Title: An Investigation of the Mechanisms of Calcium Carbonate Precipitation on Straw Speleothems in Selected Karst Caves - Buchan, Victoria.
Authors: Canning, E.
Published: 1988, Helictite 26(1):3-15
Abstract by author: The relative significance of straw speleothem growth from evaporation and from CO2 degassing was determined in Lilli-Pilli and Moons Caves (Buchan, Victoria) from a seven-month study of cave climate and water chemistry. The relative importance of these two mechanisms was inferred from the calculation of the straw growth rates according to a degassing model and an evaporation model. The modelled straw growth rates from the carbon dioxide degassing model were on hundred to one thousand times those attributable to evaporation. A third model was used to calculate straw growth rates from the overall supersaturation of the water. Growth rates were found to be within the range of 0.01 to 0.07mm per annum.
Includes: 7 tables, 3 figures, 11 refs
Title: First Responder Care for Cave Accident Victims
Authors: Osborne, R.A.L. ; (read by) Steenson, R.
Published: 1987 , Helictite 25(2):82-87
Abstract by Osborne, R.A.L.: Although cave accidents are fairly rare events in New South Wales there is a need for Police, Ambulance and V.R.A. personnel to be aware of the problems presented by cave rescues and to be able to act should a cave accident occur. The N.S.W. Cave Rescue Group is available to provide advice and training in cave rescue and, in the event of an accident taking place, can be mobilised through the Police Disaster and Rescue Branch. Like most members of the caving community, the Cave Rescue Group is a largely Sydney based organisation and its response time for an authentic call out is likely to be between 3 to 5 (or even more) hours. In the event of a cave accident there will be a delay of at least an hour before initial reporting, (members of the victim's party must leave the cave and summon help, or a party is reported overdue). As caving areas are some distance from major centres the first responders are not likely to reach the accident scene in less than two hours after the accident has taken place. With some N.S.W. cave areas it is reasonable to assume that an accident victim may be 24 hours or more away from first responder care. It is vital that the first responders to a cave accident are aware of the type of acre required by cave accident victims and of the hazards that caves present.
Title: Wilderness Myths and Australian Caves
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):68-73
Abstract by author: Beyond a preliminary discussion of some of the basic issues in the writing of any history, the paper looks at what might be called 'Wilderness Myths' of Australian caves. Any wild place generates myths, and Australian caves have their share of these, which constitute the 'folk history' of caving areas (and often that of cave guides). It is argued that these are more-or-less systematic and are not simply the result of error or simple exaggeration in transmitting the story. Examples include myths about bottomless pits, blind fish, aboriginal-white conflict, bushrangers and popular heroes of cave discoveries (along with the interesting result that non-heroes are neglected or even completely forgotten). Wilderness myths present two issues to the would-be historian : what actual events contributed to them and what does their evolution as myths mean?
Includes: 1 table, 18 refs
Title: In Cave Oxidation of Organic Carbon and the Occurrence of Rainwater Inflow Cave Systems in the Seasonally Arid Lowland Tropics
Authors: Williamson, Kerry A.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):61-67
Abstract by author: Recent studies have shown that in cave oxidation of organic carbon can play a significant role in cave initiation and development. The production and flux of organic carbon in different seasonally arid and tropical karsts and in perpetually humid tropical karst is described, with particular consideration of the role of large particle size organic carbon. The model developed is used to explain the extent of rainwater inflow cave development and the apparent scarcity of such forms in the perpetually humid tropics plus arrested development in the seasonally arid sub-tropics.
Includes: 2 figures, 2 tables, 31 refs
Keywords: Seasonally arid tropical karst, less vegetated seasonally arid karst, pinnacled and griked karsts of the perpetually humid tropics
Title: 1987 S.U.S.S. Expedition to Mt. Anne
Authors: Hobbs, Derek ; Larkin, Patrick
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):59-60
Abstract by authors: Sydney University Speleological Society (S.U.S.S.) is running a three week, 15 person expedition to the Mt. Martha area in Tasmania. Th expedition began on January 4th, 1987.
Includes: 1 ref
Title: The Australian Speleological Expeditions to Thailand 1985-1986
Authors: Dunkley, John ; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):58
Abstract by authors: Two expeditions of 6 and 10 persons plus local logistical support visited Thailand in May 1985 and April-May 1986. A total of about 12km of new cave was discovered and over 20km of surveying carried out. The two longest caves on the mainland of South-East Asia, Tham Nam Mae Lena and Tham Nam Lang each reached 8.4km. These two caves aggregate 14km of superb stream passage, exploration of which was undertaken and some significant archaeological sites requiring further investigation were located. During the period 1983-1986 six expeditions visited the previously unreported karst and caves of Nam Khong basin in north-west Thailand. Two of these were moderately large endeavours: in 1985 six cavers spent 9 days in the field, in 1986 10 members were 18 days in the north-west and a further 10 in central and South Thailand. Exploration and surveying has been the main theme of the expeditions. About 100 caves have been explored, and a total of nearly 26km of caves surveyed. A scientific research program commenced in 1986, covering geology, geomorphology and archaeology and we expect this to continue in future years. One paper has been published, three more are in press or preparation, and we have completed a 62-page report on the expedition.
Title: The Restoration of the Jewel Casket, Yallingup Cave, W.A.
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):54-57
Abstract by author: During the September school holidays 1985, vandals extensively damaged the Jewel Casket, one of the centre-pieces of the Yallingup tourist cave. Some of the broken pieces were stolen. This paper describes the restoration of the remaining pieces.
Title: Mount Etna Caves: The Fight to Save Mount Etna Caves from Limestone Mining
Authors: Vavryn, Josef M. C.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):47-50
Abstract by author: This treatise is a record of the dates and events, heavily condensed, of the history of Mount Etna since The Caves area was first settled. I hope to show that since the fight to save Mount Etna was first joined, seriously, in 1964 or there about, that the Central Queensland Company and the Queensland Government has had no intention to voluntarily release Mount Etna from limestone mining. Even in the event that conservationists took the Queensland Government to court, the Government had plans prepared to counter such. That was clearly shown when the government rescinded the Recreation Reserve, R444, on Mount Etna and refused to give a fiat to prosecute the Government. The next event, the passing of a law stating that any mining lease inadvertently granted illegally will now stand and be legal, was aimed at the mining lease granted illegally including Mount Etna. At this point in time there is very little that is being done to save Mount Etna. I hope that this paper will create new interest and revive the flagging "Fight to Save Mount Etna", with input from ASF member societies and individuals. If the treatise does not have the desired effect of renewing interest in the fight, and if the Central Queensland Cement Co. Pty. Ltd. Starts mining the main cavernous northern face of Mount Etna, the next ASF conference, or possibly the following, will have a "Letter of Requiem" read to them. If the Australian Public can save the "Gordon-below-Franklin" area and the "Lindeman Island National Park", surely something can be done for Mount Etna.
Includes: 2 refs
Title: The Cleanup of Weebubbie Cave
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):43-46
Abstract by author: For many years Weebubbie Cave had been used as a water resource. This utilisation ceased somewhere around 1984. Although the active pump and piping were removed, the debris of previous exploiters remained. The description is given of the methods employed to remove the debris based on experience gained from an earlier cleanup in the Yallingup tourist cave. Weebubbie Cave 6N-2 is a large collapse doline located on the Hampton Tableland of the vast Nullabor Plain some 14km north of Eucla near the Western Australian border. The region is arid with an average rainfall of 125mm per year, although it has been known to fall (all) in one day. With summer temperatures sometimes reaching to 50 degree C, water is essential for survival. The predominating vegetation of saltbush and bluebush is well suited as stock feed.
Title: Sport and Scout Caving - The Present Dilemma
Authors: Crabb, Evalt
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(2):39-42
Abstract by author: This paper traces the evolution of organised caving as a post World War 2 phenomenon, and the changes in practice and attitude that have occurred. These practices are contrasted against stated behavioural codes. Parallel to this, the development of caving as a scouting activity is discussed, with reference to the general principles and practices of scouting. The author has been working toward evolving policies and practices within scouting which are consistent with the needs of conservation and the underlying philosophies of scouting. Implementation of these attitudes in one area is fully detailed, with some comment on the success and acceptability of the program. This training program is contrasted against the foreshadowed N.S.W. Branch Policy on Rock-Related Activities. The sequential discussion highlights some weaknesses within clubs and A.S.F., particularly in our methods of communication. There are no firm proposals, but possible directions for future discussions are indicated. It is the intention of this paper to give a historical perspective to some of the present perceived conflicts; in reality, the only conflict is between our oft-expressed aim of conservation of caves (i.e. safeguard the karst heritage of Australia), and our visible activity - use of caves for recreational activity. Both the intensity of expression of our concern, and lessening of self-constraint on recreational activity have greatly magnified with time; we are fast approaching a 'crossroads' scenario where our credibility is at great risk.
Title: Deposition of Tufa on Ryans and Stockyard Creeks, Chillagoe Karst, North Queensland: The Role of Evaporation
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):30-35
Abstract by author: A spring which feeds Ryans and Stockyard Creeks west of Cillagoe, was examined in order to understand the circumstances producing extensive deposits of tufa in the stream channels. The spring water was found to be of considerable hardness (300 ppm total carbonates) and to emerge only very slightly supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate, but undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Both saturation levels rose very rapidly during the first 150 m of subaerial flow, as did pH and water temperature. In contrast to the reported behaviour of other limestone springs, carbonate hardness at this site does not decrease monotonically downstream, but rather locally undergoes significant increases. In particular, magnesium hardness at 1 km downstream is more than 4 times its value at the spring. These phenomena are explained in terms of evaporative concentration of the dissolved carbonates and in terms of possible chemical changes associated with the mixture of waters having contrasting characteristics at channel and pool sites along the streams.
Includes: 2 figures, 1 table, 10 refs
Title: Observations on the Buchan Karst During High Flow Conditions
Authors: Finlayson, Brian ; Ellaway, Mark
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):21-29
Abstract by authors: In late July 1984 heavy rain at Buchan in East Gippsland produced widespread flooding and activated the dry valley network and vadose cave system on the Buchan limestones. The heavy rainfall was caused by the movement southwards along the New South Wales coast of a low pressure centre which originated in southeast Queensland. Intensity - frequency - duration analysis of the rainfall event indicates that while the 24 hour fall on the day the flooding occurred had a recurrence interval of only 1.75 years, the 96 hour and the 120 hour duration had recurrence intervals of 3.8 and 8.0 years respectively. The flood peak in the Buchan River had a recurrence interval of 4.3 years. These analyses indicate that the dry valleys and vadose cave systems are hydrologically active quite frequently under present climatic conditions. Water quality observations were made on surface streams and springs in the Buchan area during the flood and the results are compared with similar data collected under low flow conditions.
Includes: 5 figures, 3 tables, 15 refs
Title: An Annotated Speleological Bibliography of Oceania
Authors: Bourke, R. Michael
Published: 1987, Helictite 25(1):3-20
Abstract by author: A preliminary annotated speleological bibliography is presented for Oceania. The region covered extends from Irian Jaya (Indonesia) in the west to the Galapagos Islands (Equador) in the east. There are 268 references given from the following countries and territories: Antarctica, Belau, Cook Islands, Easter Island, Fiji, French Polynesia, Galapagos Island, Guam, Irian Jaya, Marian Islands, New Caledonia, Niue, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Wallis and Futuna.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 268 refs
Title: The Historical Construction of Naracoorte Caves
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):60-64
Abstract by author: This paper will focus upon the role of Reddan and Leitch, who between them were responsible for some 59 years of the first 62 years of cave management at Naracoorte. Those who seek a more comprehensive narrative of events, both prior to the first reservation and since, should consult the Draft Management Plan document (S.A. : National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1986).
Includes: 2 photos, 5 refs
Title: Themes in Prehistory of the Nullarbor Caves, Semi-Arid Southern Australia
Authors: Davey, Adrian
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):53-59
Abstract by author: The 200,000 square kilometre Nullarbor Plain is a largely and relatively inhospitable tract of semi-arid land on the southern coast of Australia. It is also one of the world's largest and probably oldest karst landscapes. It contains a substantial number of caves, some of them very large. The sheer size of the plain together with its lack of surface water have made it a powerful ecological, physical and psychological barrier to the dispersal of evolving plants and animals and to human trade, settlement and communications. Because the plain is otherwise easily perceived as featureless, the more obvious of the caves have played an unusually prominent part in human exploration and occupation of the region. Aboriginal prehistory of cave exploration and use extends over many millenia. Two themes are especially interesting: quarrying underground as one of the earliest, and the role of water and shade in an inhospitable environment as the most persistent. The advent of European, Afghan and other cultures on this part of the southern coastline during the last four centuries has diversified the relevant historic themes. Victorian British discovery and exploration is the first stage in modern recognition of the caves, although long after the region was first discovered. The next and perhaps most remarkable phase brings together developments in Australian aviation and the adaptation of a grounded mariner to the land and air. Eventually the action moves on to the development of organised speleology. Other sub-themes in human interactions with the caves in this large waterless area include what may turn out to be either art or vandalism. They also include attempted grand solutions to the problem of water, by improbable engineering, as well as adventures of tourism, recreation and science.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo, 44 refs
Title: The History of Wombeyan Caves 1828-1985
Authors: Chalker, Mike ; Nurse, B. S.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):47-52
Abstract by authors: It is possible that the Wombeyan area was known to squatters before its first recorded discovery by white men in 1828. It was certainly known to the aboriginal tribe of the area, and had a place in its dreamtime. The Arch and surrounding area would be regarded as a sacred site if any of the aboriginal tribe were alive today.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo
Title: An Introduction to Abercrombie Caves Resort
Authors: Treharne, M.J.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):43-46
Abstract by authors: Abercrombie Caves Resort is located near Trunk Road 54 South (Bathurst/Goulburn Road). The turn-off to the Caves may be found 71 kilometres South from Bathurst and 22 kilometres North of Goulburn.
Includes: 1 figure
Title: Paleontological Studies at Wellington Caves N.S.W.
Authors: Augee, Michael L.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):40-42
Abstract by author: There is no evidence that Aboriginal Australians entered or used Wellington Caves. However the very first record of the caves by European Man, a drawing made by Augustus Earle in 1826 or 1827, illustrates aboriginals just outside the entrance to Cathedral Cave. That may of course simply be artistic embellishment, and it is not absolutely certain that the picture is Cathedral Cave entrance as Earle refers to it as "Mosman's Cave in the Wellington Valley". No other use of that name is known. So credit for the first reference to Wellington Caves is usually given to the explorer Hamilton Hume from an entry in his diary for December 1828. The first reference to the rich fossil deposits in the Wellington Cave System appeared shortly thereafter in the form of a letter to the Sydney Gazette dated 25 May 1830 from Mr George Rnaken of Bathurst (Lane and Richards 1963). Shortly thereafter Rnaken accompanied the colonial surveyor, Major Thomas Mitchell, to the Wellington Valley arriving in July 1830. Mitchell, realising the scientific value of the fossils, sent collections to Europe in 1830 and 1831. There they were examined by the leading scientists of the time, including Richard Owen in London and colleagues of Cuvier in Paris (the Baron having died in 1892) (Lane and Richards 1963, Foster, 1936). Modern paleontologists, beset by postal strikes and delays of several years in publication can take no joy from the fact that fossils from Wellington Caves, excavated in the second half of 1830, had been received in Europe, examined and referred to by Lyell in his classic "Principles of Geography" in 1833!
Includes: 1 photo, 7 refs
Title: Early History of Yarrangobilly Caves
Authors: Bilton, Gary
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):31-39
Abstract by author: To present my first ever paper to the first-ever seminar of spelean history in Australia is indeed a daunting, but challenging task. Present knowledge is scattered, to say the least, however it is my aim to present what is known from present resources with regard to the early history, and to reproduce some of the earliest photographs and maps of the area, some of which have never before been published. Hopefully this will provide impetus for a more systematic and detailed approach to future historical research on Yarrangobilly Caves. The history of the human occupation of Yarrangobilly Caves probably goes back thousands of years with increasing evidence of Aboriginal use becoming apparent. The Caves have been known to Europeans for around 150 years but the history of the early years is far from clear.
Includes: 1 figure, 5 photos, 26 refs
Title: Louis Guymer - Bungonia Caves First Cave Guide
Authors: Ellis, Ross ; Nurse, Ben
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):25-30
Abstract by authors: The caves are 9km from Bungonia Village which is 32km from Goulburn or 16km from Marulan and are situated on a plateau bounded by the Shoalhaven River and Bungonia Creek. Bungonia Caves were originally in Bungonia Caves Reserve administered by the N.S.W. Dept. of Lands. In 1974 the Reserve became Bungonia State Recreation Area. In 1980 all State Recreation Areas were transferred to the National Parks and Wildlife Service. The area is administered by a Trust responsible to the Minister for Planning and Development.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo, 44 refs
Title: Jenolan Caves - Heritage and History
Authors: Dunkley, John R.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):21-24
Abstract by author: My aim today is not to talk about the history of Jenolan Caves as such, but rather to suggest the contribution an understanding of its history can make to the heritage significance of Jenolan, what part can it play in attracting visitors and making their visit worthwhile. There are some implications here for those of you interested in the history of other cave areas. I would like to start by reading the first few sentences in the official guidebook to Jenolan Caves : "Jenolan Caves is Australia's show-place and premier tourist resort of its kind. It is a wild, yet easily and pleasantly accessible spot found in a forest and mountain reserve, and its limestone cave scenery is the best that can be found in a country richly endowed with caves ... the caves are visited by many thousands of tourists each year and have a record of steady progress in fame and popularity that can be accounted for only by great merit". Well, what is it that makes for this great merit? Ask an average member of the public, even an environmentally conscious one, and the reply would most likely emphasise Jenolan's great beauty and magnificence.
Includes: 1 photo
Title: Aspects of the Musical History of Jenolan Caves
Authors: Targett, Warren
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):20
Abstract by author: The acoustic quality of caves has always led people to use them for the performance of sacred or secular music. The earliest record of music at Jenolan is that of J. C. Millard, who wrote that his party "camped in the largest cave, sang a few hymns... and early next morning arose and sang the doxology" (Millard, 1858). However music must have been performed there prior to that since the Bathurst Free Press reported in 1856 that a dancing platform had been erected in the Grand Arch. Trickett (1905) however gave the date of installation of the dance floor as 1869. This was in regular use until the end of the century (Harvard, 1936) when the improved amenities of the guest house rendered it redundant. A poster of 1898 gives evidence of 'Smoke Concerts' held in the Grand Arch, with local employees providing the entertainment. The Cathedral Cave was reputedly consecrated as a place of worship in the 1880s by Bishop Barry, Anglican Primate of the colony. Since then it has been used by various denominations for divine services. This cave was also sometimes used for live broadcasts of 'Radio Sunday School' on radio station 2GB in the 1930s and 1940s. Performers included Albert Boyd, a popular light baritone, and the Lithgow Brass Band. From about 1910 until the end of the 1940s musical performances were common at Caves House, with resident musicians employed on a permanent basis to play light music during meals and after dinner to provide dance music in the Ballroom. Many entertainments were organised which were attended by both staff and guests. This came to an end in the 1950s, and for 20 years live music became a rarity at Jenolan. Inspection parties visiting the Cathedral Cave had commonly been invited to sing, but in the 1950s this tradition was dropped, and instead a remote controlled record player was installed in the cavern. The recordings played were generally of a religious character. This equipment, in a state of disrepair, was finally removed in 1979. In the late 1960s the Smoke Concerts in the Grand Arch were revived, but were abandoned in 1974 after disruption by hooligan elements. However social concerts and dances continued in Caves House. In 1983 the regular engagement of musicians began again, and live music shows are now a regular feature on Saturday nights. Occasional concerts are once more taking place in the Grand Arch. Religious services and Masonic ceremonies have taken place in the caverns. Music is once again part of the Jenolan experience.
Includes: 2 refs
Title: Spelean History in Australia; A Preliminary Review
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, Elery
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):13-19
Abstract by author: The first ever seminar on spelean history in this country constitutes something of a milestone, and so this paper is written as a state-of-the-art review of what has happened and is happening in Australian speleo-history. Hopefully, others will be able to add important data which are at present unknown to me. I would also hope that the near future will see enough further study to make this paper out of date anyway.
Includes: 76 refs
Title: The History of Cave Studies
Authors: Shaw, Trevor R.
Published: 1986, Helictite 24(1&2):3-12
Abstract by author: The purpose of this paper is to set the overall scene for those that follow. Its aim is to provide a context for the ones dealing specifically with cave work in Australia. It examines the ways in which cave studies have developed elsewhere in the world, in different circumstances and under different constraints. There is not space here to consider the growth of ideas on speleogenesis, karst hydrology, the formation of speleothems, and the more 'scientific' aspects of the subject (Shaw, 1979). Discussion is therefore limited to progress in cave exploration and recording. Also, because of its impact on the serious study of caves, the growth of the general public's awareness of caves is touched upon. Interest in caves and the amount known about them has increased like so many things at an increasing rate, largely because after a certain stage existing knowledge aided subsequent work. For many centuries though, indeed for most of recorded history, this use of previous knowledge did not occur and explorations if they took place at all, were sporadic. It is convenient to divide cave history into four periods: a) the prehistory of cave exploration : to c.1000 B.C. b) isolated expeditions : c.1000 B.C. - c.1650 A.D. c) explorations making use of published information : c.1650 - 1878 d) explorations by cave societies : 1879 - date
Includes: 2 figures, 8 photos, 49 refs
Title: Abstract: Diving at Cocklebiddy Cave
Authors: Allum, Ron
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: Cocklebiddy Cave (Western Australia) lies 200km west of the South Australian border on the Nullarbor Plain. It is mostly waterfilled and represents the world's longest cave dive. In September1982 an Australian diving expedition had increased the known length to 4.3km. This was extended to 5.85km in 1983 by the French expedition led by F. Leguen, using motorised underwater scooters and lightweight equipment. The French party regarded the prospects for further extension as poor, since the hitherto wide passage had become rather constricted. The following month, October 1983, a team consisting of Hugh Morrison, Ron Allum and Peter Rogers with 11 supporting divers made a further attempt on the cave using only manual power. They established a camp at Toad Hall, a large air-filled chamber 4.3km into the cave, and dived from there to the constriction which had stopped the French team. From this point Hugh Morrison continued using only one air cylinder, and continued a further 240m. He was stopped only by shortage of air. The explored length of Cocklebiddy now stands at 6.09km, and the only barrier of further exploration is the logistic problem of carrying air cylinders through the constriction. (The full text of this paper is in Australian Caver No.109, pp 2-5, "Cocklebiddy, Australia - World's Longest Cave Dive")
Title: Abstract: Benua Cave, Keriaka Plateau, Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Wood, Ian D.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: Benua Cave is situated in the Keriaka Limestone plateau above the west coast of Bougainville Island. It was first reported by pilots during World War II and first visited speleologically by Fred Parker in 1963. The North Solomons Cave Exploration Group made a three day visit to the cave in order to make an accurate survey. The cave consists of a single chamber, 470m along its longest length with a maximum width of 150m and height of 170m. A river estimated at 3 m3.s-1 rises at the foot of a 100m sheer wall and flows out of the entrance. The cave contains an 18m tall stalagmite of impressive proportions. Side passages can be seen at high level but would require mechanical aids to reach. (The full text of this paper will appear in Australian Caver)
Title: Abstract: Anglo-Australian Expedition to the Gunnung Sewu Karst, Java, Indonesia
Authors: Tyson, Wayne
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):59
Abstract by author: In August 1984, six members of the Western Australia Speleological Group joined six members of the Kingswood Caving Group (U.K.) in Java, and with the assistance of the Federation of Indonesian Speleological Activities explored and mapped approximately 20km of cave passage in a period of three weeks. Many large river passages were found and a fair mixture of vertical and horizontal systems. The highlight of the expedition was the discovery of Luwang Jaran (Horse Pot) which was surveyed for 11km with many leads still going. This is now the longest cave in Indonesia. Six other caves over 1km long were found. The potential for further exploration in Java is enormous, despite bureaucratic difficulties. A return expedition is planned for 1983.
Title: Abstract: Water Tube Levelling
Authors: Smith, N. I.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):58
Abstract by author: Vertical relationships within predominantly horizontal cave systems have traditionally been determined by measuring vertical angles with a clinometer. However, this system can lead to large errors over long traverses. It is unsuitable for purposes such as determining relative levels in superimposed passage systems where there is no short connecting path. The principle of levelling using a water-filled tube is well known - the water surfaces at the two ends of the tube will assume the same level when the tube is open to the atmosphere. A number of refinements to the apparatus are necessary to make the system practical for cave surveying. This paper described the levelling equipment developed by the Cave Exploration Group of South Australia and reports on some of the practical experience gained with it in Mullamullang Cave, 6N-37. (The full text of this paper is in Australian Caver No. 109, pp 10-13)
Title: Caving Potential of Australian Aeolian Calcarenite
Authors: White, Susan
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):56-58
Abstract by author: Although Australia is limited in karst areas by world standards, the extensive areas of aeolian calcarenite (dune limestone) are often ignored by cavers. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of aeolian calcarenite karst in Australia and discusses its caving potential.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 refs
Title: Australian Aquatic Cavernicolous Amphipods
Authors: Knott, Brenton
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):51-55
Abstract by author: The purpose of this paper is to acquaint speleologists with preliminary results of recent researches into the amphipodan fauna from aquatic ecosystems of Australian caves, with particular reference to Western Australia. Attention is focussed particularly on the systematic and zoogeographic significance of this fauna.
Includes: 19 refs
Title: Cave to Surface Communications
Authors: Allum, Ron
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):46-50
Abstract by author: The reasons for needing a cave to surface communication system are many, including safety, search and rescue, surveying, science, exploration and commentary. Ideally a unit should be lightweight, portable, robust, easy to operate, have adequate range and be able to communicate speech intelligibly in both directions. The unit described here was designed specifically for use on the 1983 Cocklebiddy Cave expedition. When considering design parameters for a communication system there are many limitations, but in a cave as large as Cocklebiddy these can be less of a restriction. The unit as used does not meet all of the above criteria as an ideal system for all caves, but it worked well in Cocklebiddy Cave, conveying our speech intelligibly with tolerable noise and interference levels.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 refs
Title: Survey and Mapping Techniques at Chillagoe, North Queensland
Authors: Smith, Neil I.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(2):39-45
Abstract by author: Some characteristics of the Chillagoe Caves in North Queensland are briefly described and a short history is given of the types of survey and mapping work performed. "Perimeter Surveys" around the karst towers are important contributions to speleology in the area. The reasons for this are discussed, and some work done in 1983 using theodolite techniques is described. A worthwhile improvement in accuracy has been achieved. Some examples of recent maps are included.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 refs
Title: A Survey Data Reduction Program Aid for Radio Direction Finding Work
Authors: Martin, D. J.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):27-32
Abstract by author: A computer program that calculates the horizontal distance, magnetic bearing and difference in elevation between the current point on a survey traverse and a specified end point is described. It has been designed to assist in the survey location of surface points designated for radio direction finding work in difficult terrain. The program has been adapted from a conventional cave survey data reduction program and is suitable for field use on a hand-held microcomputer.
Includes: 4 figures, 4 refs
Title: Histoplasmosis and Australian Cave Environments
Authors: Harden, T. J. ; Hunt, P. J.
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):23-26
Abstract by authors: Histoplasma Capsulatum is a fungus which is the causative agent of histoplasmosis, a disease of worldwide distribution. The prevalence of this disease and its manifestation in clinical cases of disease in humans are described. The association of this fungus with dung enriched soil is discussed, particularly in relation to caves which are frequented by colonial bats. Histoplasma capsulatum has been associated on several occasions with the respiratory form of Histoplasmosis in Australia but has only been isolated from the Church Cave. It is suggested that although Histoplasma capsulatum in Australia has been found in association with only Miniopterus schreibersii, other genera of bats may also harbour this fungus.
Includes: 25 refs
Title: Karst and Caves of the Nam Lang - Nam Khong Region, North Thailand
Authors: Dunkley, John
Published: 1985, Helictite 23(1):3-22
Abstract by author: The Nam Lang - Nam Khong Karst Region, located in a thinly populated, remote part of Mae Hong Son Province, north-west Thailand, comprises about 1,000km2 of massive Permian limestone. Over much of the area is developed a characteristic polygonal karst dominated by over 3,000 depressions, with an assemblage of forms including dolines, uvalas, poljes, streamsinks, through caves, springs and blind valleys. Speleological exploration commenced only in 1983 and the major discovery is the Tham Nam Lang, the longest cave reported on the mainland of south-east Asia with nearly 7km of passages. Cave development is strongly influenced by regional strike and fault orientation and by base level incision into impermeable sediments underlying the limestone. The largest caves are formed where aggressive water collects on impervious rocks before entering the limestone. Elsewhere cave development is limited. Several caves are important archaeological sites, and a number have tourist potential.
Includes: 6 figures, 2 tables, 6 photos, 27 refs
Title: Spider Cave, Jenolan - A Fault Controlled System
Authors: Cox, Guy ; Welch, Bruce
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(2):43-53
Abstract by authors: Spider Cave is an influent cave, representing one stage in the progressive capture of the surface flow of the Jenolan River by a cave system. It consists principally of a rarely-active inlet passage, largely of phreatic form, which descends to join the large passage carrying the Jenolan Underground River. Both the position and the form of the inlet passage have been strongly influenced by the presence of a fault, which has also influenced the course of the surface river, and given rise to a large cliff - Frenchmans Bluff. The fault-line has also affected the development of the main underground riverway.
Includes: 3 figures, 8 photos, 12 refs
Title: Determination of the Causes of Air Flow in Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly
Authors: Michie, N. A.
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):21-30
Abstract by author: Observations of air flow through Coppermine Cave, Yarrangobilly, are reported. A model is presented of the cave as a two entrance system with air flow dominated by air density differentials with little sensitivity to surface wind. The measurement technique and data analysis are described.
Includes: 22 figures, 18 refs
Title: A Preliminary Survey of Water Chemistry in the Limestone of the Buchan Area Under Low Flow Conditions
Authors: Ellaway, Mark ; Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):11-20
Abstract by authors: Water samples from selected sites in the Buchan area were collected on two different occasions (survey 1 and survey 2) in an preliminary attempt to characterise the samples taken in terms of chemical composition. Chemical constituents such as Ca++, Mg++, and titration alkalinity (as mg/l CaCO3) varied considerably and ranged from 9.0 - 187.0 mg/l, 2.5 - 43.3 mg/l and 27 - 417 mg/l (survey 1) and 3.5 - 188.7 mg/l, 3.5 - 40.0 mg/l and 44 - 424 mg/l (survey 2) respectively. This range in values is attributed to the differing lithology of the sample sites chosen and reflects the geological control on water chemistry of karst landscapes. A computer program for determining equilibrium speciation of aqueous solutions was used to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 tables, 2 surveys, 19 refs
Title: The Origin of the Kelly Hill Caves, Kangaroo Island, S.A.
Authors: Hill, A. L.
Published: 1984, Helictite 22(1):6-10
Abstract by author: The Kelly Hill caves in soft, homogenous, extremely porous dune limestone differ markedly in morphology from those in the more usual, dense, bedded limestones. Solution occurs at depth with great lateral spread through swamps overflowing into the base of the hill. Development occurs by roof breakdown as areas of solution become so large that the roof cannot support the weight; a theory of the mechanics is presented. Domes and tunnels of collapse rise above the watertable; at maturity there are isolated infalls from the surface. Water percolating down from the surface only builds secondary calcite deposits.
Includes: 4 figures, 5 refs
Title: Prediction of Climatic Temperature Data for Karst Areas in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales
Authors: Halbert, Erik J. M.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(2):55-63
Abstract by author: The use of multiple regression analysis is shown to overcome current limitations in availability of climatic temperature data for caving sites in the Central and Southern Tablelands of New South Wales. The developed equations are used to calculate climatic data for Jenolan, Wellington, and Oberon which agree well with recorded data at these sites. The equations are also used to calculate data for six major caving areas in New South Wales, including the tourist areas Wombeyan and Yarrangobilly and frequently visited areas such as Bungonia and Wee Jasper.
Includes: 4 figures, 5 tables, 12 refs
Title: Further Studies At The Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part II, Water Chemistry And Discussion
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(2):35-54
Abstract by author: The 1969-77 data confirm that groundwater temperature is significantly higher than air temperature at mean catchment altitude but provide only partial support for an explanation in terms of soil temperature and insulation of drainage from cold air ponding over the Plain. Higher pH of output than input streams is attributed mainly to percolation water chemistry. Water chemistry of two contrasted input streams suggests non-karst rock weathering has an important effect on allogenic input streams. An inverse relationship between carbonate hardness and output discharge is found again and attributed mainly to faster transit through the limestone at high flows. Summer has a steeper regression than winter due to precipitation and high flows depressing carbon dioxide and carbonate concentrations more in that season than in winter. Picknett graphs show how solutional capacity varies through the hydrologic system, with aggressive input streams, mainly saturated percolation water, and rarely saturated output springs because of the allogenic component in the last. The total carbonate load of Cave Creek is directly related to discharge, with little seasonal difference so the annual regression is chosen for later calculation. When the carbonate load duration curve and frequency classes for Cave Creek are compared with those for other karsts, it falls into an intermediate class in which neither very high nor low flows dominate the pattern. This is attributed to a combination of a large allogenic input with a complex routing pattern. Consideration of most input stream solute concentration on one occasion indicates such close dependence on catchment geology that doubt is cast on the smallness of the 1965-9 allocation of carbonate contribution from non-karst rock weathering to the allogenic input. This is explained by new CSIRO rainfall chemistry figures from the Yass R. catchment which are smaller than those used before and by elimination of a previous error in calculation. This time subtraction of atmospheric salts is done on a daily basis with a decaying hyperbolic function. Correction of Cave Creek output for allogenic stream input follows the method adopted in 1965-9 but on a firmer basis, with the assumption of approximately equal water yeild per unit area from the non-karst and karst parts of the catchment being more factually supported than before. It remains a substantial correction. The correction for subjacent karst input to Cave Creek is also improved by putting the calculation in part on a seasonal basis; it remains small. The exposed solute load output shows the same seasonal pattern as was determined earlier, with a winter/spring maximum, and it again evinced much variation from year to year. So did annual rates. The mean annual loss of 29 B was slightly greater than for 1965-9. If this difference is real and not an experimental error, the reduced allowance for atmospheric salts and greater annual rainfall in the second period could explain the increase. This erosion rate of 29 B from an annual runoff of about 400mm places this karst where it would be expected in the world pattern of similar determinations in terms of both runoff and its proximity to the soil covered/bare karst dichotomy of Atkinson and Smith (1976). Combined with the other work at Cooleman Plain on erosion at specific kinds of site, an estimate of the spatial distribution of the limestone solution is presented. It agrees well with the similar attempt for Mendip by Atkinson and Smith (1976), when allowance is made for certain differences in method and context. The main conclusions are the great role of solution in the superficial zone and the unimportance of the contribution from caves. Conflict between this process study and the geomorphic history of Cooleman Plain remains and once again an explanation is sought in long persistence of a Tertiary ironstone cover inhibiting surface solution.
Includes: 7 figures, 10 tables, 45 refs
Title: Taylor Creek Silcrete Cave, North of Melbourne, Central Victoria
Authors: Webb, J.A. ; Joyce, E.B.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):25-32
Abstract by authors: Taylor Creek Cave is formed within sediments of the Red Bluff Sand, a Pliocene unit overlain by Newer Volcanics. The cave consists of a single low chamber, 12m long and 5m wide, that has been excavated in friable sandstone under a resilient silcrete roof; it has formed by an unusual combination of piping and stream erosion. Taylor Creek initially exposed the silcrete surface, then piping below the silcrete caused tunnel formation in the sandstone. Collapse of overlying material into this tunnel captured Taylor Creek, causing it to flow beneath the silcrete and thereby enlarge the cave to its present size.
Includes: 5 figures, 19 refs
Title: Mechanical Testing and Evaluation of Screw-Links
Authors: Martin, D. J.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):21-24
Abstract by author: Screw-Links (maillon rapides) are an item of equipment which may be used as an alternative to karabiners in some caving situations. The gate design of a screw-link gives it several advantages over the karabiner. The results of testing of some screw links which are sold in Australia are presented. Some recommendations as to their suitability for caving use are given.
Includes: 1 figure, 3 tables, 2 photos, 4 refs
Title: Further Studies at the Blue Waterholes, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W., 1969-77, Part I, Climate and Hydrology
Authors: Jennings, J. N.
Published: 1983, Helictite 21(1):3-20
Abstract by author: Previous study of the temporal and spatial distribution of limestone solution at Cooleman Plain rested on monthly discharges and water analyses of the Blue Waterholes over 4 years. For this study automatic recording of discharge (8 years), rainfall (8 years), evaporation (7 years) and temperature (4 years) was attended by variable success in the face of interference, rigorous climate and inaccessibility. The most important aspect of the climatic data was the support obtained for the earlier assumption of similar water balances in the forested igneous frame and the grassland limestone plain. Runoff was again shown to be highly variable from year to year and to have an oceanic pluvial regime, with a summer-autumn minimum owing much to evapo-transpiration. The flow duration curve from daily discharges puts this karst amongst those where neither extremely high nor low flows are important. The stream routing pattern offsets the effect of 71% of the catchment being on non-karst rocks, damping flood events. An inflection of 700 l/s in a flow duration plot based on discharge class means is interpreted as the threshold at which surface flow down North Branch reaches the Blue Waterholes. Storages calculated from a generalised recession hydrograph parallel Mendip data where baseflow (fissure) storage provides most of the storage and quickflow (vadose) storage only a secondary part. Water-filled conduit storage (the phreas) could not be determined but is considered small. The baseflow storage seems large, suggesting that it can develop independently of caves in some measure. A quickflow ratio for floods derived by Gunn's modification of the Hewlett and Hibbert separation line method appears relatively low for a mainly non-karst catchment and is again attributed to the routing pattern. For analysis of variation of the solute load over time, estimates of daily discharge during gaps in the record where made for the author by Dr. A.J. Jakeman and Mr. M.A. Greenaway (see Appendix). A small number of discharge measures of two contrasted allogenic catchments of the igneous frame shows a unit area yield close to that for the whole catchment. Together with the guaging of most of the allogenic inputs, this supports the idea that the water yield is much the same from the forested ranges and the grassland plain. This is important for the estimation of limestone removal rates.
Includes: 11 figures, 4 tables, 1 appendix, 4 refs
Title: Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Data in Cave Atmospheres using the Gibbs Triangle and the Cave Air Index
Authors: Halbert, Erik J. M.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):60-68
Abstract by author: Water Vapour determines the volume percentage of component gases in cave atmospheres. This is particularly significant in foul air caves where carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations are measured and used to diagnose foul air types. The variation in atmospheric composition brought about by systematic change in carbon dioxide and oxygen levels is examined and shown on the Gibbs triangle. The current three foul air types are readily identifiable in this visualisation of data, and the boundaries of these types are mapped. Further, these diverse data can be combined into a Cave Air Index by which foul air atmospheres may be assigned to type in a rapid and objective manner. The use of these concepts in evaluation of published data on Wellington and Bungonia Caves and with mine and soil data is shown.
Includes: 4 figures, 3 tables, 1 appendix, 28 refs
Title: Granite Caves in Girraween National Park, South-East Queensland
Authors: Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):53-59
Abstract by author: Four caves and two underground streams in granite occur within the Girraween National Park. Only two of these sites have previously been reported. They mainly occur on the margins of major joints in the granite where streams descend into troughs along the joints. The caves are themselves formed in minor joints. In some cases streams have worked their way down from the surface along a joint but at three of the sites streams flow through horizontal joints in the granite which have not been opened from the surface. For these sites it is not clear how the initial passage was opened up underground. The two possible mechanisms suggested here are solution and joint opening following pressure release. The cave morphology clearly indicates that once the path flow is open, abrasion becomes the major process. Flowstone terraces, 'cave coral', and cemented gravels are found in the caves. The speleothems and the cement are amorphous silica (Opal A). Caves in granite may be more common than was previously thought.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 photos, 11 refs
Title: Principles and Problems in Reconstructing Karst History
Authors: Jennings, J. N.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(2):37-52
Abstract by author: Principles and problems in the reconstruction of karst history, apart from methods of absolute dating, are discussed and illustrated on the basis of Australian examples as far as possible, but with recourse to overseas where necessary. Relict, buried, exhumed and subjacent components, and compound histories are considered. Connotations for the less consistently employed terms, fossil karst and palaeokarst, are recommended.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 photos, 69 refs
Title: Metastrengite in Loniu Cave, Manus Island
Authors: Francis, G.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):29-31
Abstract by author: The unusual occurrence of the mineral metastrengite (FePO4.2H2O) in a cave on Manus Island is described. Its formation is attributed to the interaction of biogenic materials containing phosphates and ferruginous sediments derived from insoluble residues in the limestone bedrock.
Includes: 1 figure, 9 refs
Title: Isotopic Composition of Precipitation, Cave Drips and Actively Forming Speleothems at Three Tasmanian Cave Sites
Authors: Goede, A. ; Green, D.C. ; Harmon, R.S.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):17-28
Abstract by authors: Monthly samples of precipitation and cave drips were collected from three Tasmanian cave sites along a north-south transect and their 18O/16O ratios determined. At one station D/H ratios were also measured and the relationship between delta 18O and delta D values investigated. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios of monthly precipitation show marked seasonality with values correlating strongly with mean monthly temperatures. The effect of temperature on 18O/16O ratios appears to increase as one goes southwards and is at least twice as strong at Hastings (.61 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C) as it is shown at Mole Creek (.28 deg /oo SMOW/ deg C). Irregularities in the seasonal pattern of 18O/16O change are particularly pronounced at Hastings and in the Florentine Valley and can be attributed to the amount effect. For delta 18O values > -5.5 deg /oo the combined data from the three Tasmanian stations show an amount effect of .026 deg /oo SMOW/mm. Cave drips show apparently random, non-seasonal variation in the 18O / 16O isotopic compostion but the weighted mean of the 18O/16O isotope composition of precipitation provides a good approximation to their mean 18O/16O isotopic composition. In contrast to their D/H ratios for a cave drip site in Little Trimmer Cave, Mole Creek, show a distict seasonal pattern. The 18O/16O and 13C/12C ratios have been determined for a number of actively forming speleothems. With respect to 18O/16O it is found that speleothems the three sites are being deposited under conditions approaching isotopic equilibrium. The 13C/12C ratios of these speleothems are highly variable but the generally less negative values found in Frankcombe Cave (Florentine Valley) compared with the other two sites may reflect the effects of recent clearfelling in the area.
Includes: 9 figures, 5 tables, 12 refs
Title: Glaciation and Karst in Tasmania: Review and Speculations
Authors: Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1) 11-16
Abstract by author: The evolution of Tasmanian karsts is fundamentally interwoven with the history of Quaternary climatic change. Specifically karstic processes were periodically overwhelmed by the influence of cold climate which exerted strong controls over thermal, hydrological and clastic regimes. While these episodes of cold climatic conditions have temporally dominated the Quaternary, their legacy may be under represented in present karst landforms. There is no general case with respect to the consequences for karst of the superimposition or close proximity of glacial ice. The pattern of events in each area will be dependant upon the interaction between local and zonal factors. A number of Tasmanian karst which may have been influenced by glaciation are briefly discussed.
Includes: 2 figures, 32 refs
Title: Colour In Some Nullarbor Plain Speleothems
Authors: Caldwell, J.R. ; Davey, A.G. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Spate, A.P.
Published: 1982, Helictite 20(1):3-10
Abstract by authors: Chemical and mineralogical analyses of 18 speleothem samples from Nullarbor Plain caves are related to their colours ranging from white to black through browns and reds. Iron, manganese and organic compounds are the pigments responsible but their effect is variable according to their manner of incorporation in the speleothems and possibly also to the intervention of clay minerals. Closer studies are necessary to unravel these aspects and to investigate sequences of colour in speleothem growth.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 23 refs
Title: Determination of Karst Water Aggressiveness By Artificial Saturation: A Comparison of Results Obtained Using Limestone and Reagent Grade Calcium Carbonate
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(2):68-72
Abstract by author: Trials of the method of estimating the aggressiveness of karst water by artificial saturation (Stenner, 1969) were made on stream and spring waters in limestone country at Buchan, Victoria. Saturation was brought about with both laboratory reagent grade calcium carbonate and also with powdered local limestone. Resulting estimates of the initial degree of saturation varied considerably. The differences amounted to an average 5.6% (maximum 8.0%) in aggressiveness estimated from change in total hardness, 8.8% (maximum 14.0%) using calcium hardness, and 9.4% (maximum 31.0%) using magnesium hardness. Whilst the average difference between the two sets of results are not great, and certainly do not prohibit the use of the original Stenner method, they do serve to indicate that in particular individual cases misleading results can be obtained if local limestone is not used. Possible reasons for the differing behaviour of the two materials is suggested.
Includes: 1 table, 15 refs
Title: Variation of Hardness in Cave Drips at Two Tasmanian Sites
Authors: Goede, Albert
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(2):57-67
Abstract by author: Thirteen consecutive monthly samples were collected from two drip sites at each of two Tasmanian caves: Little Trimmer at Mole Creek and Frankcombe Cave in the Florentine Valley. At one of the two drip sites in Little Trimmer a positive relationship was found between the logarithm of precipitation and the total hardness without any detectable lag effect. No such relationship was detected at the other drip site despite its close proximity. At both drip sites the hardness values fail to show a seasonal pattern and are clearly unrelated to surface temperature variations. In strong contrast both drip sites in Frankcombe Cave showed significant seasonal variation and close positive correlation with mean monthly temperature with lag times of one and two months respectively. At one of the two drip sites the influence of monthly precipitation on variations in drip hardness could also be detected. The strong temperature dependence of cave drip hardness values at these sites may well be due to soil exposure to direct insolation following recent clearfelling and burning of vegetation in the area.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table, 5 refs
Title: Towards An Air Quality Standard For Tourist Caves : Studies of Carbon Dioxide Enriched Atmospheres In Gaden - Coral Cave, Wellington Caves, N.S.W.
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(2):48-56
Abstract by author: Carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres are not uncommon in Australian caves and have posed a safety problem for cavers. Carbon dioxide enrichment of a tourist cave's atmosphere is a management problem which can only be approached when standards for air quality are applied. In Gaden - Coral Cave two types of carbon dioxide enrichment are recognised; enrichment by human respiration and enrichment from an external source. Standards for air quality in mines and submersible vehicles are applicable to tourist caves. A maximum allowable concentration of 0.5% carbon dioxide is recommended as the safe, but not the most desirable, air quality standard for tourist caves.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 21 refs
Title: Geomorphology and Past Environments at Nombe Rockshelter, Simbu Province, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Gillieson, David S. ; Mountain, Mary-Jane
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(2):40-47
Abstract by authors: The geomorphic development of a limestone rockshelter in the Chimbu region of New Guinea is outlined. The sedimentary sequence and associated artifactual material are described and related to regional chronology. Disturbance of the rockshelter deposits by seismic and erosive processes is indicated, and must be borne in mind when excavating and analysing material from similar sites.
Includes: 4 figures, 11 refs
Title: Abstract: Darwin and Diprotodon: The Wellington Cave Fossils and the Law of Succession IN: Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 104, 1980 for 1979:265-272
Authors: Dugan, Kathleen G.
Published: 1979, Helictite 19(1):35
Abstract by Jennings, Joe: The fossils from Wellington Caves, some of them 'giant', are well known to Australian speleologists, finds of importance for the study of Australian fauna from early discovered caves. What I think we did not appreciate was that the Wellington 'bones' have a place in the world history of science of significance also, the theme of this paper. Many of you will have watched the BBC-TV series on 'The Voyage of the Beagle'; much was made of the importance to Darwin in developing his theory of evolution of the fossils he found in southern South America. There fossils of giant relatives of sloths, llamas and armadillos helped to make clear to him the notion of the geological succession of life, a basic part of his theory along with the idea of natural selection to which the finches and the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands proved crucial. However it seems that Darwin was previously aware of the similar significance of the Wellington Caves bones for the law of succession from Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology which quotes William Clift's identifications of dasyures, wombats and kangaroos amongst them. The fact that these recently extinct animals were closely related to the distinctive modern marsupial fauna of Australia counted much against earlier conceptions such as Cuvier's catastrophic theory or Buckland's ideas of successive divine creations within a short time span. Watchers of the TV series will remember the devious role played by the palaeontologist, Sir Richard Owen, in organising public opposition to Darwin at the famous Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. This article relates the series of rearguard actions of Owen to maintain that there was a fossil elephant component in the ancient Australian fauna, damaging to Darwinism. But the growing evidence from Australia, not all of it from caves, of course, finally extinguished this red herring, started by that doctrinaire N.S.W. colonial, the Reverend John Dunmore Lang.
Title: Gulemwawaya: A Cave in Welded Tuff At Budoya, Fergusson Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(1):33-34
Abstract by author: A 30m cave in pyroclastic deposits on the flank of a volcano is thought to be made by eluviation and fluvial erosion, and possibly supported mechanically by welded tuffs above. This note is to record a small but significant cave that deserves further attention. I visited the cave for about half an hour in July 1980 and had no facilities for survey or photography.
Includes: 3 refs
Title: Damawewe Cave, Alotau, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Pain, C.F. ; Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(1):28-32
Abstract by authors: Damawewe Cave is a cave formed in Quaternary limestone near Alotau, Papua New Guinea. It consists of three sets of passages: the uppermost (and oldest) are the largest and the lowermost (active) are the smallest. Although the cave is mainly vadose, there is evidence of enlargement by corrosion and by collapse (in the uppermost level), and the sequence of cave formation has been interrupted by at least one phase of cave fill by clay and gravels.
Includes: 2 figures, 2 photos, 4 refs
Title: Scanning Electron Microscope Studies of Cave Sediments
Authors: Gillieson, David S.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(1):22-27
Abstract by author: The microstructure of the surfaces of quartz and grains can reveal their history prior to their deposition in a cave. The scanning electron microscope is the ideal tool for such studies. This paper presents examples of the sort of information obtainable from such a study, drawing examples from caves in Australia, Papua New Guinea and Norway.
Includes: 1 figure, 10 plates, 13 refs
Title: Chemistry of a Tropical Tufa-Depositing Spring Near Mt. Etna, Queensland: A Preliminary Analysis
Authors: Dunkerley, D. L.
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(1):15-21
Abstract by author: Water samples taken from a spring and six locations on the stream fed by it were analysed in order to determine the factors responsible for the deposition of tufa along the channel. The spring water, whilst carrying a large quantity of dissolved carbonates, proved to be almost at equilibrium with calcite. The considerable amount of dissolved carbon dioxide necessary for such a load to be carried underwent rapid degassing after emergence of the water. In consequence, about one quarter of the initial load of dissolved carbonate was deposited in the first 430m of subaerial flow. This deposition did not however keep pace with the degassing of CO2, and calcite supersaturation increased progressively downstream.
Includes: 2 figures, 1 table, 1 photo, 14 refs
Title: Underground Streams on Acid Igneous Rocks in Victoria
Authors: Finlayson, Brian
Published: 1981, Helictite 19(1):5-14
Abstract by author: Underground streams occur in valley floors on acid igneous rocks over a wide area of eastern Victoria. In some cases the underground passage is capable of accommodating all streamflow levels so that there is no active surface channel. Three of them contain passages accessible to cavers. The literature contains very few references to features of this kind and there is some confusion as to whether they should be called 'pseudokarst'. Detailed descriptions and diagrams are presented for two of the sites, Labertouche and Brittania Creek. At North Maroondah, sinking streams on dacite have caused complications for hydrological experiments. Possible origins of these features are discussed and it is obvious that several mechanisms are feasible. One of the difficulties in determining modes of formation is that a variety of processes could lead to very similar end products. Three main theories on the mode of formation are suggested.
Includes: 6 figures, 2 tables, 18 refs
Title: Caves, Graves and Folklore of Normanby Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Pain, C.F. ; Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1980, Helictite 18(2):55-62
Abstract by authors: A rock shelter in gneiss and several caves in raised coral limestone are described from Normanby Island. Songs and stories that relate some of the caves to ancestors and to the mythical origin of the island population are recounted. Cave burials are described, which are predominantly accumulations of human skulls.
Includes: 2 figures, 4 photos, 5 refs
Title: Equilibrium Versus Events in River Behaviour and Blind Valleys at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N. ; Haosheng, Bao ; Spate, A.P.
Published: 1980, Helictite 18(2):39-54
Abstract by authors: Seventeen blind valleys of the Yarrangobilly karst are describes especially with reference to shifting streamsink location and phases of downward incision. A series of measures of them, based partly on ground traverses and partly on contoured maps, is presented and discussed. Standard morphometry of the basins ending in the blind valleys is presented also. These truncated basins are shown to have normal morphometric relationships. Whether a stream sinks or not in the limestone appears generally to relate to the length of limestone to be crossed in relation to full stream or basin length, though basin relief ratio may intervene. The hypothesis that there will be dynamic equilibrium between the dimensions of blind valleys and sinking stream catchments finds only limited support in the data. This is because underground stream capture represents an abnormal event in drainage basin development liable to upset equilibrium relationships and its timing may be adventitious in that development. With a larger population of blind valleys to be analysed, this factor of timing might become subordinate, and a batter predictive model of blind valley volume be derived.
Includes: 9 figures, 4 tables, 17 refs
Title: A Review of the Cord Technique (La Technique Cordelette)
Authors: Warild, A.T.
Published: 1980, Helictite 18(2):31-38
Abstract by author: The technique of descending a multi-pitch cave with only one rope, leaving a thin cord on each pitch for re-rigging the ascent, has recently become popular in France. This paper described some improvements to the technique and assesses its place in Australasian caving.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 1 photo, 2 refs
Title: Water Chemistry of the Atea Kananda and the Related Drainage Area
Authors: James, Julia M.
Published: 1980, Helictite 18(1):8-24
Abstract by author: The Ca2+, Mg2+, alkalinity, pH and temperature have been measured in water from the Atea Kananda cave and related surface sites on the Muller Plateau (Papua New Guinea). A wide variation in the Ca2+ and Mg2+ values was found and this has been attributed to the lithology and nature (open or closed) of the water courses. From alkalinity measurements anions other than bicarbonate, probably sulphate are expected to be present in significant quantities in the cave waters. Most of the waters are aggressive. The Ca2+/Mg2+ x 10 ratio is shown to be a useful tool in predicting the origin of unknown waters in the cave. The variations of the measured and calculated parameters for groups of related surface and underground sites are presented and discussed. Tentative solution erosion rates for the Muller Plateau have been calculated and the conclusion reached that where the erosion can be placed as largely occuring on pure limestone these are high. Impure limestones and non-calcareous rocks in their catchments give anomalously low results for the main rivers. A scheme for cave development on the Muller Plateau by solution mechanisms is presented.
Includes: 4 figures, 7 tables,18 refs
Title: Determining Doline Origins; A Case Study
Authors: Jennings, J.N. ; Haosheng, Bao
Published: 1980, Helictite 18(1):3-7
Abstract by authors: Cases where there is clear evidence about the origin of a doline are less frequent than those where the indications are uncertain. Three dolines above Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, which are at first sight familiar but which in fact include both solution and collapse dolines, are examined to illustrate the strengths and limitations of different kinds of evidence for doline origin. Wherever possible, underground evidence should be sought.
Includes: 2 figures, 10 refs
Title: Morphology and Origin of Holy Jump Lava Cave, South-Eastern Queensland
Authors: Webb, John A.
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(2):65-74
Abstract by author: Holy Jump Lava Cave consists of portions of lava tubes in two superimposed flows. The upper tube probably connected with the downflow section of the lower tube via a lavafall. A small upflow part of the lower tube is also preserved, and shows the original wall and roof structures. Elsewhere the cave has suffered extensive breakdown, and only small sections of the original walls are still present. The cave has been further modified by secondary silica mineralisation, fine sediment deposition, and guano accumulation. The enclosing lava flows are early Miocene basalts of the Main Range Volcanics, making Holy Jump Lava Cave one of the oldest lava tube caves known.
Includes: 3 figures, 9 photos, 38 refs, 1 appendix, 5 appendix refs
Title: Sea Caves of King Island
Authors: Goede, Albert ; Harmon, Russell ; Kiernan, Kevin
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(2):51-64
Abstract by authors: Investigation of two King Island sea caves developed in quartzitic rocks shows them to contain a wealth of clastic and chemical sediments. Clastic sediments consist of wave-rounded cobbles, debris cones, and angular rock fragments produced by frost weathering and crystal wedging. Chemical deposits include a variety of calcium carbonate speleothems and also gypsum occurring as wall crusts and blisters. The latter appear to be a speleothem type of rare occurrence. Growth of gypsum is responsible for some crystal wedging of the bedrock. Three basal stalagmite samples have been dated by the Th/U method indicating Late Pleistocene as well as Holocene speleothem growth. The caves are believed to have formed by preferential wave erosion during the Last Interglacial in altered and fractured quartzites. The evidence for pre-Holocene evolution of sea caves and geos in the Tasman region is summarised. Tasmania and the Bass Strait Islands provide a particularly favourable environment for the preservation of relict landforms on rocky coasts because of Late Quaternary uplift. The potential of further studies of sea caves to test two recently advanced archaeological hypotheses is discussed.
Includes: 4 figures, 1 table, 8 photos, 22refs
Title: An Unusual Sandstone Cave From Northern Australia
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(1):39-45
Abstract by author: The finding in recent years of much longer and more elaborate caves in quartz sandstone in South America than were known previously prompted a search for caves other than weathering caves in Arnhem Land in 1978. Though in the main unveiling for social reasons, it did lead to recognition that Yulirienji Cave, St Vidgeon Station, Northern Territory, well known for its Aboriginal rock art, is an abandoned, short river cave in quartz sandstone modified by weathering.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 photos, 11 refs
Title: Hardness Controls of Cave Drips, Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(1):30-38
Abstract by author: Drips in the forward part of the Murray Cave between 5 and 50m below the surface were sampled about once a month for 2 years, carbon dioxide in the soil above and in the cave air being measured also. Mean soil CO2 content was fifteen times atmospheric, summer yeilding higher values than winter though the dry 1972-3 summer had low values. Greater depths in the soil had more CO2 than shallower ones. Cave air had on the average little more CO2 than the atmosphere but river flooding of the cave was followed by large CO2 fluctuations. There was a slight tendency for drips to be warmer and to vary less in temperature inwards. Drip pH was greater in summer than winter because of high CO2 production. The (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio of the drips was nearly ten times that of the Blue Waterholes, showing that igneous rock weathering around the Plain supplies more of the Na and K in the spring output than was envisaged before. The drip Mg/Ca ratio lies close to that of the Blue Waterholes, underlining the dominance of the limestone in the output hydrochemistry. The mean total hardness of 141 mg.L-1, not significantly different from earlier Murray cave drip measurements, sustains the previous estimate that the superficial zone provides about 2/3 of the limestone solution. The summer value (149 mg.L-1) is significantly greater than the winter mean (132 mg.L-1), including high values in the dry 1972-3 summer when CO2 values were low. Lagged correlation on a weekly and three weekly basis of individual drip hardness on air temperature and precipitation yielded few significant results. Only a weak case for dominance of hardness by temperature through rhizosphere CO2 was evident but neither was the conflicting hypothesis of hardness in such contradictory ways that more detailed observations over equally long time periods are necessary to elucidate their influence.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 tables, 15 refs
Title: Preliminary Report: Caves in Tertiary Basalt, Coolah, N.S.W.
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(1):25-29
Abstract by author: Caves of up to 85m in length have been developed in amygdaloidal bodies within Tertairy basalts. Speleothems are found in some of these caves. The origin and development of these caves is being investigated.
Includes: 1 figure, 12 photos, 3 refs
Title: Cave and Landscape Evolution At Isaacs Creek, New South Wales
Authors: Connolly, M. ; Francis, G.
Published: 1979, Helictite 17(1):5-24
Abstract by authors: Isaacs Creek Caves are situated in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales and form a distinct unit within the Timor karst region. The larger caves such as Man, Helictite and Belfry all show evidence of early development under sluggish phreatic conditions. Nevertheless later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development occurred in Belfry and Helictite caves. In the case of Helictite Cave sluggish phreatic, dynamic phreatic and vadose action may have operated simultaneously in different parts of the same cave. After each cave was drained through further valley incision by Isaacs Creek, extensive clay fills derived from surface soil were deposited in it. There has been considerable re-excavation of the fills; in Main Cave younger clay loams have partially filled the resulting cavities and thus underlie the older clays. The earliest speleogenesis took place in Main Cave which pre-dates the valley of Isaacs Creek. This cave now lies in the summit of Caves Ridge about 100m above the modern valley floor. Helictite and Shaft Caves formed when the valley had been cut down to within 30m of its present level and some early phreatic development also took place in the Belfry Cave at this time. Later phases of dynamic phreatic and vadose development in Belfry Cave occurred when the valley floor lay about 12m above its present level and can be correlated with river terraces at this height. Evidence from cave morphology, isotopic basalt dates and surfaces geomorphology indicates that Main Cave formed in the Cretaceous and that Helictite Cave, Shaft Cave and the early development in Belfry Cave date from the Palaeogene. Although the dynamic phreatic and vadose action in Belfry Cave is more recent, it may still range back into the Miocene. This is a much more ancient and extended chronology than has hitherto been proposed for limestone caves and is in conflict with widely accepted ideas about cave longevity. Nevertheless evidence from Isaacs Creek and other parts of the Hunter Valley indicates that the caves and landforms are ancient features and thus notions of cave longevity developed in younger geological environments of the northern hemisphere do not apply in the present context.
Includes: 9 figures, 2 photos, 39 refs
Title: Development of a Subterranean Meander Cutoff: The Abercrombie Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R. ; Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite 16(2):71-85
Abstract by authors: The Abercrombie Caves are exemplary of a subterranean meander cutoff. The bedrock morphology, especially flat solution ceilings, permits reconstruction of an evolution from slow phreatic initiation to epiphreatic establishment of a substantial throughway, followed by progressive succession to vadose flow and phased channel incision. At two separate stages, there was twofold streamsink entry and underground junction of flow. Five 14C dates from alluvial sediments show that capture of the surface stream was certainly complete before c.15,000 BP and that by c.5,000 BP the stream had almost cut down to its present level.
Includes: 8 figures, 6 refs
Title: Caves Of Woodlark Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Pain, C.F.
Published: 1979, Helictite 16(2):64-70
Abstract by authors: Woodlark Island consists of folded Tertiary rocks with a cover of Quaternary coral limestone that contains caves of two kinds:- river passage caves and shallow coastal caves mainly at old spring sites. Many caves contain remains of human burials and associated pottery.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 photo, 9 refs
Title: Bungonia Caves and Gorge, A New View of Their Geology and Geomorphology
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Francis, G. ; Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1979, Helictite 16(2):53-63
Abstract by authors: Work done at Bungonia since 1972 has filled gaps in our knowledge of this area. Water tracing has proven the earlier interference that the waters of all the major caves of the Lookdown Limestone and the uvula containing College Cave go to Efflux. Geological remapping shows that faulting allows these connections all to lie in limestone and accounts for the drainage of B4-5 away from the gorge. A 45m phreatic loop identified in Odyssey Cave, exceptionally large for south-eastern Australia, is also accounted for by the geological structure. Phoenix Cave has two successive cave levels similar to those of B4-5. The perched nature of the Efflux now finds a structural control in that the Folly Point Fault has interposed impervious beds between this spring and the gorge. Further analysis of the evidence relating the age of uplift and incision in the Shoalhaven and its tributaries strengthens the case for setting these in the lower Tertiary whereas most of the caves cannot be regarded as other than young. The geological remapping can partly account for the age discrepancy between underground and surface forms found at Bungonia.
Includes: 2 figures, 32 refs
Title: Caves and Karst On Misima Island, Papua New Guinea
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Pain, C.F.
Published: 1978, Helictite 16(1):40-49
Abstract by authors: 27 caves were examined on Misima Island. Most are sea caves, but some have clear phreatic origins and some result from vadose solution along joints. One cave is formed by washing out of fragments in fault-shattered gneiss. Karst development in the raised coral appears to have been limited by the absence of streams flowing through the limestone. This results from the geomorphic development of the area, which has isolated the coral into discontinuous patches. Many caves have human burials, with associated pottery and one cave contains at least 100 skulls.
Includes: 4 figures, 1 table, 2 photos, 6 refs
Title: Quill Anthodites in Wyanbene Cave, Upper Shoalhaven District, New South Wales
Authors: Webb, J.A. ; Brush, J.B.
Published: 1978, Helictite 16(1):33-39
Abstract by authors: Anthodite fragments collected at Frustration Lake in Wyanbene Cave were examined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope, and found to be both calcite and aragonite. The aragonite quills are original; some of the calcite ones represent overgrowths of aragonite, but others may have formed as original calcite or by transformation of aragonite.
Includes: 2 figures, 17 photos, 24 refs
Title: Structure, Sediments and Speleogenesis at Cliefden Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Osborne, R. Armstrong L.
Published: 1978, Helictite 16(2):3-32
Abstract by author: The Cliefden Caves have developed in the Late Ordovician Cliefden Caves Limestone mainly by solution in the phreatic zone. Speleogenesis has been inhibited in steeply dipping thinly bedded limestone and shows a high degree of structural control. Collapse has been significant in late stage development of the caves. Much sediment has been deposited in the four caves studied in detail - Main Cliefden, Murder, Boonderoo and Transmission. Formed in the phreatic zone, layered clay fill is the earliest sediment deposited and occurs in all but Transmission Cave. The phosphate mineral heterosite is found in these sediments. Subaqueous precipitation deposits deposited in the phreas or vadose pools are distinguished from speleothems by their texture. Aragonite is inferred to have been deposited in these sediments and to have since inverted to calcite. Friable loam and porous cavity fill are the most common vadose deposits in the caves. Vadose cementation has converted friable loam to porous cavity fill. Speleothem deposits are prolific in Main Cliefden, Murder and Boonderoo Caves. Helictites are related to porous wall surfaces, spar crystals result from flooding of caves in the vadose zone and blue stalactites are composed of aragonite. Cliefden Caves belong to that class proposed by Frank (1972) in which deposition has been more important than downcutting late in their developmental history.
Includes: 13 figures, 1 tables, 24 photos, 1 appendix, 36 refs
Title: Evaluation Criteria for the Cave and Karst heritage of Australia - Report of the Australian Speleological Federation - National Heritage Assessment Study (1977)
Authors: Davey, A.G. (ed)
Published: 1984, Helictite 15(2):2-41
Abstract by Davey, A.G.: Protection and management of natural heritage features such as karst landforms requires considered evaluation of the relative significance of individual features. The grounds for significance depend on the perspective taken. Aesthetic, educational, scientific and recreational values are all relevant and must each be given explicit recognition. Karst landforms are often considered primarily from a scientific perspective. The criteria used for evaluation of such natural heritage features for conservation and management purposes need to reflect this full range of values. This means that karst sites may have significance from one or more of these perspectives, as examples of natural features or landscapes, as examples of cultural features or landscapes or as the site of recreation opportunities. Some such sites will be identified as significant because they are representative of their class (irrespective of the relative importance of classes); others will be judged as significant because they are outstanding places of general interest.
Includes: 2 figures, 10 tables, 5 photos, 1 appendix, 268 refs
Title: A Chemical Investigation of some Groundwater of the Northern Limestone at Jenolan Caves
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Handel, M.L.
Published: 1977, Helictite 15(1):29-38
Abstract by authors: A brief description of the geology and drainage of the Northern limestone at Jenolan Caves is introduced. Approaches to karst geochemistry are given. The reasons are given for the choice of complete chemical analyses followed by calculations of the thermochemical parameters (saturation indices with respect to calcite and dolomite, SIc and SId, and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide PCO2) for the Jenolan groundwaters. The methods of chemical analysis and thermochemical calculations are reported. The results of the groundwater survey are presented both as the raw chemical data and the derived thermochemical data. The raw data give more useful information than the calculated parameters. The results obtained by this survey are consistent with observations and the previous knowledge of the underground drainage of the Northern limestone. The water chemistry reflected the rock type and the residence time of the water in bedrock and gravels. It is concluded that the Jenolan underground River and Central River have different types of source and that Central River is not a braid of the Jenolan Underground River.
Includes: 1 figure, 4 tables, 16 refs, 3 appendices
Title: Frustration and New Year Caves and Their Neighbourhood, Cooleman Plain, N.S.W.
Authors: Rieder, L.G. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Francis, G.
Published: 1977, Helictite 15(1):18-28
Abstract by authors: Frustration and New Year Caves are active between-caves, paralleling in plan and profile the ephemeral stream bed of the V-shaped valley in which their entrances are found. The main streamsink in this valley system feeds their stream, which in turn supplies Zed Cave, a short outflow cave just outside the mouth of this valley. This modest derangement of surface drainage pattern is in keeping with the caves which show slight vadose modification of epiphreatic cave development. Although these active caves are young, they probably formed prior to a Late Pleistocene cold period (30,000 to 10,000 BP) on the basis of soils evidence. Clown Cave on the brow of the valley, a dry cave with indications of sluggish phreatic development, is related to a planation phase of Middle or Lower Tertiary age before valley incision. Bow and Keyslot Caves are abandoned in and out and outflow caves respectively, formed when the surface stream channel was a few metres above the present valley bottom so they antedate the active river caves a little. This hydrologically independent part of the Cooleman Plain mirrors in most respects the major parts draining to the Blue Waterholes, differing chiefly in the greater proportion of between-caves discovered so far.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 17 refs
Title: On the Subterranean Syncarids of Tasmania
Authors: Lake, P.S. ; Coleman, D.J.
Published: 1977, Helictite 15(1):12-17
Abstract by authors: The current knowledge on the occurrence of syncarid crustaceans in underground habitats in Tasmania is reviewed. The "mountain shrimp" Anaspides tasmaniae has been recorded on at least five occasions from caves. Syncarid shrimps in the genera Allenaspides, Koonunga and Nicraspides have been collected from crayfish burrows. The term Pholeteros is coined to define the community of organisms dwelling in crayfish burrows. Syncarids in the genera Koonunga and Atopobathynella have been collected in the bed of streams (Hyporheos). The collection of the new species of syncarid from an underground spring at Devonport is reported.
Includes: 4 photos, 1 appendix, 28 refs
Title: A New Development in Solving Problems of Large Scale Speleophotography "Diprotodon Poulter"
Authors: Poulter, Norman
Published: 1977, Helictite 15(1):3-11
Abstract by author: A discussion of the special requirements of photography in large caverns is followed by a history of the "Diprotodon" magnesium flare as a lighting source. A new model, Diprotodon poulter is described in detail.
Includes: 3 figures, 2 photos, 14 refs
Title: Protecting Rope From Abrasion In Single Rope Techniques
Authors: Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite 14(2):49-62
Abstract by author: The risk of abrasion of rope used for abseiling and prusiking on a pitch depends on the nature of the pitch, the characteristics of rub points on it and the technique of the caving party. This paper attempts to isolate these factors and discuss methods by which a rope can be protected from them.
Includes: 6 figures, 3 refs
Title: A Triple Dye Tracing Experiment At Yarrangobilly
Authors: Spate, A.P. ; Jennings, J.N. ; Ingle Smith, D. ; James, Julia M.
Published: 1976, Helictite 14(2):27-47
Abstract by authors: Rhodamine WT, leucophor HBS and fluorescein were inserted into Deep, Eagles Nest and Traverse Creeks respectively, all sinking wholly or partly into the limestone at Yarrangobilly, as part of a program to determine the catchment area of Hollin Cave. Hollin Cave and three other major springs, together with the Yarrangobilly River above, between and below these springs, were sampled for various periods manually or by machine. Heavy rains began a day after dye insertion. Various lines of evidence and analysis, including the plotting of regression residuals between different wavebands as time series, showed that the relevant fluorescent wavebands were affected by rises in natural fluorescence in the runoff, probably of organic origin. Green was affected most, then blue, and orange only slightly. It was possible to identify a dye pulse of rhodamine at Hollin Cave, most probably representing all the dye put in. A leucophor dye pulse was also identifiable here but a load curve could not be constructed because of probable interference by changing natural fluorescence. Tracing by fluorescein became impossible. Interference between the three dyes was demonstrated. The implications for future quantitative tracing here are discussed.
Includes: 7 figures, 3 tables, 13 refs
Title: Atea Kanada
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Randall, H. King ; Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite 14(2):5-26
Abstract by authors: The Atea Kanada in the Muller Range, Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, was investigated during the 1976 Muller Range Expedition. Four kilometres of cave passages were surveyed and the cave map is presented. The cave is described together with a tentative history of its development. The possible sinking points and resurgences of the cave water are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the depth and length potential, and feasibility of further exploration in such a river system.
Includes: 1 table, 4 maps, 9 photos, 5 refs
Title: A Geomorphological Assessment of the Chillagoe Karst Belt, Queensland
Authors: Marker, Margaret E.
Published: 1976, Helictite 14(1):31-49
Abstract by author: The geomorphological characteristics of the Chillagoe karst belt are analysed in terms of an evolution controlled by seasonally arid climatic conditions and lithological variation in the metamorphosed host rock.
Includes: 10 figures, 2 tables, 12 refs
Title: The Geology, Geomorphology, Hydrology and Development of Odyssey Cave, Bungonia, New South Wales
Authors: James, Julia M. ; Montgomery, Neil R.
Published: 1976, Helictite 14(1):5-30
Abstract by authors: Odyssey Cave is described in detail and its development is related to the regional geology, geomorphology and hydrology of the Bungonia karst.
Includes: 7 figures, 8 photos, 16 refs
Title: Paleo-distribution of Macroderma gigas in the South West of Western Australia
Authors: Bridge, P.J.
Published: 1975, Helictite 13:34-36
Abstract by GB: A study of the distribution of Macroderma remains in the caves of the southwest of Western Australia has shown greater past bat concentrations than previously recorded and that the distribution of skeletal remains and guano piles indicates a series of expansions and contractions of the Macroderma range during the Holocene.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 refs
Title: Chiropterite Deposits In Moorba Cave, Jurien Bay, Western Australia
Authors: Bridge, P.J. ; Hodge, L.C. ; Marsh, N.L. ; Thomas, A.G.
Published: 1975, Helictite 13:19-33
Abstract by authors: An old guano pile deposited by Macroderma gigas has been examined chemically and mineralogically. Sixteen sectional analyses of a profile are presented and discussed. The main soluble components are P2O5, CaO and SO3 (present as brushite, ardealite, gypsum and collophane) with insoluble quartz. Taranakite occurs as a minor constituent.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table, 4 photos, 11 refs
Title: Observations of karst hydrology in the Waga Valley, Southern Highlands District, Papua, New Guinea
Authors: Jacobson, G. ; Michael Bourke R.
Published: 1975, Helictite 13:3-18
Abstract by authors: In the neighbourhood of a possible dam site in the Waga Valley, Southern Highlands District, Papua New Guinea, there is little surface drainage apart from the Waga River itself. However, many nearby features - streamsinks, springs, estavelles, dry valleys, dolines and caves - are indicative of the marked development of karst drainage. Loss of river water by entry underground is not balanced by the known local outflows, and larger resurgences must be sought further afield to complete an understanding of the karst hydrology relevant for the engineering proposal.
Includes: 6 figures, 5 tables, 2 photos, 1 ref
Title: Dr. Robert Broom, Taralga
Authors: Hunt, Glenn S.
Published: 1974, Helictite 12:31-52
Abstract by GB: This short history traces Dr. Robert Broom's time in Australia 1892-1896, including his 18 months stay in the small town of Taralga, New South Wales, where he practised as a medical doctor. He carried out speleological and fossil activities in Australia at Chillagoe, Cudal, Hillgrove and especially Wombeyan. Material is taken from his previously undiscovered correspondence with The Australian Museum, Sydney,
Includes: 4 plates, 1 figure, 18 refs, 39 archival refs
Title: Sedimentary Development of the Walli Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R.
Published: 1974, Helictite 12:3-30
Abstract by author: The sedimentary history of the Walli Caves began with the deposition of finely laminated clay during the latter part of bedrock development in the phreatic zone. After aeration and entrance development, entrance facies accumulated, and this was followed by the deposition of large amounts of fluvial and lacustrine deposits. Episodic fluvial erosion of these deposits then took place, and flowstone was formed extensively during periods between each active erosion phase to produce a striking sequence of suspended flowstone sheets.
Includes: 12 figures, 6 photos, 14 refs
Title: Results of Survey levelling at Bungonia Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Anderson, Edward G.
Published: 1973, Helictite 11(4):92-95
Abstract by author: During 1971, members of the University of N.S.W. Speleological Society (UNSWSS) were working on a project to determine water table levels, as represented by sumps, in some of the Bungonia Caves. It was soon realised that the accuracy of heights determined from the available surface surveys, usually "forestry compass" traverses, was insufficient. The author was asked to provide more accurate surface levels and, consequently, two trips were organised on 24-25 July and 31 July 1971 with the aim of establishing a differential levelling net in the plateau area. Personnel on the first trip comprised E.G. Anderson and A.J. Watson (Senior Photogrammetrist, N.S.W. Lands Department), surveyors, and A.J. Pavey and M. Caplehorn, UNSWSS, assistants. On the second trip, M. Caplehorn was replaced by A. Culberg, UNSWSS.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 2 refs
Title: Evolution of the Wellington Caves Landscape
Authors: Francis, G.
Published: 1973, Helictite 11(4):79-91
Abstract by author: Wellington Caves, New South Wales (figure 1), have attracted scientific attention for more than a century, largely through discoveries in the cave sediments of bones from extinct animals. These bone discoveries provided impetus for a number of early speculations about the geomorphology of the caves area and its relationship to the caves. Notable among these was the conjecture of Mitchell (1839) that the valley floor sediments of the Bell River and the cave fills had been deposited during a marine transgression about one million years ago. The first systematic geomorphological work was carried out by Colditz (1943), who argued for two distinct relict erosion levels in the Bell Valley; the older level was assigned to the Lower Pliocene and the younger to the Upper Pliocene. Colditz considered that these levels provided evidence for two phases of uplift in late Tertiary times. More recently Frank (1971) made detailed studies of the cave sediments, and devoted some attention to landscape evolution. He believed that the Bell River had been captured by Catombal Creek, during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.
Includes: 2 figures, 26 refs
Title: Survey of the Spider Fauna of Australian Caves
Authors: Gray, M.R.
Published: 1973, Helictite 11(3):47-75
Abstract by author: A preliminary list of spiders from Australian caves is given and discussed. Some 90 species in 23 families are represented. While the fauna is essentially troglophilic, 11 species are classed as troglobites and a further 12 species as advanced troglophiles. The cave adapted fauna is largely confined to southern Australia with the notable exception of the pholcid troglobite, Spermophora sp. nov., which is a tropical relict. Troglobotic representatives of the families Pholcidae and Theridiidae are recorded for the first time. A maximum age of 2.5-3.0 million years is suggested for the troglobitic fauna. A comparison of the Australian and Japanese cave spider faunas is made.
Includes: 4 figures, 2 tables, 4 photos, 28 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Sedimentary and Morphological Development of the Borenore Caves, New South Wales, Part II
Authors: Frank, R.M.
Published: 1973, Helictite 11(2):27-44
Abstract by author: (as per Part I, Helictite 10(4):75) The Borenore Caves, west of Orange, occur in a partly metamorphosed Silurian limestone outcrop of about 5.5 km2 which forms an impounded karst. Both of the main caves, the Arch Cave and the Tunnel Cave, contain large quantities of clastic sediments. Evidence from the position and kind of sediments and from the bedrock features show that both caves have undergone a predominantly fluvial development by a sequence of stream captures. The same type of evidence indicates a dry climatic phase for the Borenore area about 28,000 BP.
Includes: 2 figures, 4 photos, 21 refs
Title: Hydrological Observations at the Junee Resurgence and a Brief Regional Description of the Junee Area, Tasmania
Authors: Goede, A.
Published: 1973, Helictite 11(1):3-22
Abstract by author: The results are presented for one year of field measurement and analysis of water samples at the Junee resurgence, one of the largest karst risings in Tasmania. The water emerges from Junee Cave at an altitude of approximately 300m and forms the source of the Junee River at a point about 5km north-west of the township of Maydena. The resurgence drains a large area along the southern boundary of the Mt Field National Park and appears to be fed by a number of streamsinks, the nearest of which are at least 2km distant. The only underground drainage connection proved so far is with one of the largest of these stramsinks, Khazad-dum. This cave has been explored to a depth of 321m and is recorded as Australia's deepest cave system. The Junee area is located in central southern Tasmania and is centred on 146°40' East and 42°45' South. The Junee resurgence is the only significant rising in the area and is commonly thought to drain most of the Junee area. This opinion is based largely on the interpretation of the geological structure as shown in the geological sketch map of Hughes and Everard (Hughes 1957). However, a more detailed examination of the area on which Figure 1 is based, suggests that the western limit of underground drainage towards the Junee resurgence may be more or less coincident with the axis of the NNW plunging Nichols Spur anticline. Further mapping of the geological structure, and water tracing, will be required to confirm this.
Includes: 9 figures, 2 tables, 15 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Sedimentary and Morphological Development of the Borenore Caves, New South Wales, Part I
Authors: Frank, R.M.
Published: 1973, Helictite 10(4):75-90
Abstract by author: (of parts I and II) The Borenore Caves, west of Orange, occur in a partly metamorphosed Silurian limestone outcrop of about 5.5km2 which forms an impounded karst. Both of the main caves, the Arch Cave and the Tunnel Cave, contain large quantities of clastic sediments. Evidence from the position and kind of sediments and from the bedrock features show that both caves have undergone a predominantly fluvial development by a sequence of stream captures. The same type of evidence indicates a dry climatic phase for the Borenore area about 28,000 BP.
Includes: 5 figs
Title: The Migration of Cave Arthropods Across The Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia
Authors: Richards, Aola, M.
Published: 1972, Helictite 10(3):60-72
Abstract by author: The Nullarbor Plain is a low plateau of Tertiary limestone covering an area of 194,175 km2 in southern Australia. It has a semi-arid climate and supports a stunted vegetation. Ninety-five species of arthropods have been recorded from 47 Nullarbor caves, and many of these species are widely distributed across the Plain. Two possible explanations for their distribution are discussed. Subterranean migration may occur through the widespread zone of small interconnecting cavities in the Nullarbor Limestone, but this has not yet been confirmed. While cave arthropods are confined to the cool, moist cave environment during the day, they have been observed at night in cave entrances, in dolines and on the surface of the Plain. Cave "breathing", similarity in cave and epigean climate at night, strong winds, occasional heavy rain and numerous animal burrows all contribute towards favourable conditions for surface migration.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 tables, 2 photos, 10 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Phascolarctos (Marsupialia, Vombatoidea) and an Associated Fossil Fauna From Koala Cave Near Yanchep, Western Australia
Authors: Archer, M.
Published: 1972, Helictite 10(3):49-59
Abstract by author: A recently discovered fossil fauna from Koala Cave (Yn 118), Yanchep, Western Australia, contains the marsupials Sthenurus brownei, Potorous platyops, Phascolarctos sp., Perameles sp., Vombatus sp., and a large snake. The fauna is in some respects comparable with the Mammoth Cave and Labyrinth Cave faunas of the Cape Leeuwin-Cape Naturaliste region.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 18 refs
Title: Observations at the Blue Waterholes, March 1965 - April 1969, and Limestone Solution on Cooleman Plain, N.S.W.
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1972, Helictite 10(1&2):3-46
Abstract by author: After brief descriptions of the geomorphology of the Cooleman Plain karst and in particular of the Blue Waterholes, the methods adopted to analyse the functioning of these major risings are detailed. The discharge regime of Cave Creek below them is oceanic pluvial in type perturbed by drought and snow. There is much annual variation both in seasonal incidence and total amount, with catchment efficiency correspondingly variable. Suspended sediment concentration is even more erratic and monthly determinations are inadequate for calculating corrasional denudation rates. Mean concentrations of suspended solids are about 1/18th of solute load. Total dissolved salts have a strong inverse relationship with discharge, and mean values are high compared with those for other catchments in eastern Australia but none of these determinations are from limestone catchments. Sodium, potassium, and chlorine contents are low compared with the same catchments but silica is relatively high. The ratio of alkaline earths to alkalis indicate that Cave Creek carries carbonate waters and there is an inverse regression of the ratio on discharge. There is inverse correlation of total hardness on discharge likewise due to concentration of surface waters by evaporation in dry periods, together with reduced underground solution rate at times of large, rapid flow. The spring waters remain aggressive. Close regressions of hardness on specific conductivity now permit the latter to be determined in the place of the former. Much evidence converges to indicate that all the springs at the Blue Waterholes are fed from the same conduit. The intermittent flow which comes down the North Branch on the surface to the Blue Waterholes differs significantly in many characters from the spring waters. Rates of Ca + M carbonate equivalent removal vary directly with discharge since hardness varies much less than does water volume. These gross rates have to be adjusted for (a) atmospheric salts entering the karst directly, (b) peripheral solute inputs from the non-karst two-thirds of the catchment and (c) subjacent karst solution before they can be taken as a measure of exposed karst denudation. The methods for achieving this are set out. The total corrections amount to about one third of the total hardness, though the correction for subjacent karst on its own lies within the experimental error of the investigation. The residual rate of limestone removal from the exposed karst also shows a winter/spring high rate and a summer/autumn low rate but the seasonal incidence and annual total varied very much from year to year. In comparison with results from karsts in broadly similar climate, the seasonal rhythm conforms and so does the high proportion (78%) of the solution taking place at or close to the surface. This reduces the importance of the impounded condition of this small karst but supports the use of karst denudation rate as a measure of surface lowering. Cave passage solution may however be more important in impounded karst than its absolute contribution might suggest, by promoting rapid development of underground circulation. The mean value of limestone removal is low for the climatic type and this is probably due to high evapotranspirational loss as well as to the process of eliminating atmospheric, peripheral non-karst and subjacent karst contributions. The difficulties of applying modern solution removal rate to the historical geomorphology of this karst are made evident; at the same time even crude extrapolations are shown to isolate problems valuably.
Includes: 8 figures, 2 tables, photos, 42 refs
Title: The Use of Titanium Tetrachloride In The Visualisation Of Air Movement In Caves
Authors: Halbert, E.J. ; Michie, N.A.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(4):85-88
Abstract by authors: The problems concerned with the visualisation of low-velocity air flow in caves are discussed. The behaviour of several chemical tracers in the Mammoth Cave, Jenolan, New South Wales, is described, in particular that of the compound titanium tetrachloride. A suitable method for the transport and use of this compound has been developed.
Includes: 1 ref
Title: A Preliminary Note On A Cave In Basalt, Bunya Mountains National park, Queensland
Authors: Graham, A.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(4):73-84
Abstract by author: The existence of a small cave in Tertiary basalt in the Bunya Mountains, Queensland, has been known for some time, but has only recently come to the attention of speleologists. The origin of the cave is uncertain, although multi-process formation or modification of an original lava tube is suggested. The cave contains a small colony of Miniopterus schreibersii.
Includes: 7 figures, 2 photos, 3 refs
Title: Further Caves of Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K. ; Heers, G.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(3):61-70
Abstract by authors: In a previous paper (Ollier and Holdsworth, 1970) we described the island of Kitava and many of the caves on the island. This note supplements that account and describes caves and related features discovered during a brief expedition to the south of the island (Figure 1) in 1971. Kitava is a coral island with a number of terraces and reaches a height of 466 feet. There is a central depression in the top of the island, the site of the lagoon before the reef was uplifted. Some caves are associated with the rim of the island, a few occur on mid-slopes, and others are found along the sea cliffs. Many of the caves have been used for burial of human remains, sometimes associated with pots, clam shells or canoe prows. Canoe prow burials are reported here for the first time. Some caves are associated with megalithic structures and legends of the origin of the various sub-clans (dala) of the island.
Includes: 5 figures, 3 photos, 2 refs
Title: Resemblances Between the Extinct "Cave Goat" (Eutheria, Bovidae) of the Balearic Islands and Phalangeroid Marsupials
Authors: Merrilees, D.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(3):51-60
Abstract by author: Information on the extinct "cave goat" (Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909) of the Balearic Islands is reviewed. Abundant remains of Myotragus balearicus are known from various deposits of late Quaternary (including Regent) ages. It had only a single pair of lower incisors, in this respect resembling Australian herbivorous marsupials, especially the bare nosed wombats.
Includes: 2 figures, 31 refs
Title: Caves of Kitava and Tuma, Trobriand Islands
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K. ; Heers, G.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(2):29-48
Abstract by authors: The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated a hundred miles off the north-east coast of Papua and north of the D 'Entr'ecasteaux Islands. In previous papers we have described caves on Kiriwina (the main island), Vakuta and Kitava (see References). We now describe caves of Kaileuna and Tuma (see Figures l and 2). In August 1970, we spent one week of intensive search for caves on these two islands, making our headquarters in the copra store in the village of Kadawaga. Kaileuna island is six miles long and almost four miles wide, and supports a population of 1,079 (1969 Census). It is separated from the large island of Kiriwina by a channel two miles wide between Mamamada Point and Boll Point, though the main village of Kadawaga on the west coast of Kaileuna is 18 miles from Losuia and 14 miles from Kaibola. The island is generally swampy in the centre with a rim of uplifted coral around the edge. We were assured that the correct name of the island is Laileula, but since Kaileuna is used on all previous maps it is retained here. However, we prefer Kadawaga to the Kudawaga or Kaduwaga that appear on some maps. The inhabitants are of mixed Melanesian-Polynesian Stock, who are almost totally self-supporting, being in the main farmers and fishermen. The yam (taitu) constitutes the staple crop and the harvest is still gathered in with ceremonies unchanged for centuries. There is great competition among families for the quantity and quality of the crop, which is displayed firstly in garden arbours (kalimonio), later in the village outside the houses; traditionally styled yam huts (bwaima) are then constructed to display the harvest until the next season. The transfer of yams from the garden to the village is occasion for a long procession of gatherers to parade through the village blowing conch shells and chanting traditional airs (sawili) to attract the attention of villagers to the harvesting party, After storage of the harvest, a period of dancing and feasting (milamala) continues for a month or more, Traditional clothing is the rule, Women and girls wear fibre skirts (doba), most of the men, especially the older ones, wear a pubic leaf (vivia) made from the sepal of the betel nut palm flower (Areca catechu Linn.). Tuma, the northernmost of the main islands in the Trobriand group, is six miles long and less than a mile wide. It is a low ridge of coral with swamps in the centre and along much of the western side. The island has been uninhabited since 1963 when the last few residents abandoned it and moved to Kiriwina, but it is still visited from time to time by other islanders who collect copra and fish. Tuma is believed by all Trobriand Islanders to be inhabited now by the spirits of the dead. It is also generally believed that Tuma is the original home of the TrobIiand ancestors; these ancestors are also said to have emerged at Labai Cave on Kiriwina Island, and from many other places of emergence or 'bwala". Lack of consistency in the legends does not appear to concern the Trobrianders very much. The cave maps in this paper are sketches based mainly on estimated dimensions, with a few actual measurements and compass bearings. Bwabwatu was surveyed more accurately, using a 100 ft steel reinforced tape and prismatic compass throughout.
Includes: 15 figures, 6 photos, 7 refs
Title: The Clastic Sediments of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R.
Published: 1971, Helictite 9(1):3-26
Abstract by author: The Wellington Caves are about 8 km south of the town of Wellington, New South Wales. They were discovered in the 1820s and their long and varied history as a vertebrate palaeontological site began about 1830. Most of the early fossil collections were made by the explorer and surveyor-general, Major T.L. Mitchell, from an upper stratigraphic unit exposed in Mitchell's Cave and Cathedral Cave. Such venerable palaeontologists as Cuvier, Pentland, Jameson and Owen examined the material. Phosphate mining operations in the early 1900s exposed additional sedimentary sequences and most of the later vertebrate collections have come from these mines. A history of the discovery and exploration of the caves, as well as of the more important palaeontological aspects, is given by Lane and Richards (1963). A number of theories on the origin of the caves and especially on the depositional environment of the bone-bearing sediments, has been offered and some of these are summarised by Lane and Richards (1963). Most of these were conceived before 1900, none of them are detailed and they are generally speculations presented as minor portions of other articles dealing with a broader subject.
Includes: 4 figures, 5 photos, 32 refs, 1 appendix
Title: Cave Paintings From Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(4):79-93
Abstract by authors: Kitava is the most easterly island of the Trobriand group. It is an uplifted coral atoll, oval in plan, with a maximum diameter of 4 1/2 miles. The centre of the island is swampy and surrounded by a rim that reaches a height of 142 m. Caves occur in various parts of the rim and several have been described in a previous article (Ollier and Holdsworth, 1970). One of the caves, Inakebu, is especially important as it contains the first recorded cave drawings from the Trobriand Islands. Inakebu is situated on the inner edge of the island rim at the north-eastern end of the island. Map 1 shows the location of the cave on Kitava Island. Map 2 is a plan of the cave, surveyed by C.D. Ollier and G. Heers. The location of the cave drawings is shown on the plan. Inakebu is a "bwala", that is a place where the original ancestor of a sub-clan or dala is thought to have emerged from the ground. The bwala tradition is common throughout the Trobriands and neighbouring islands. It has been described by many writers on the anthropology of the area, and was summarised in Ollier and Holdsworth (1969). The people believe that if they enter such places they will become sick and die. Until November, 1968, no member of the present native population had been in the cave, though there is a rumour that a European had entered it about 20 years before, but turned back owing to lack of kerosene. It must be admitted that this tale sounds rather like the stories one hears in Australia that Aborigines were afraid of the dark caves and therefore did not go into them. In fact, the many discoveries in the Nullarbor Plain caves show that they did, and the cave drawings in Inakebu show that someone has been in this cave. The point is that it does not seem to be the present generations who entered the caves but earlier ones; people from "time before" as they say in New Guinea. The first known European to enter the cave was Gilbert Heers, a trader in copra and shell who lived on the nearby island of Vakuta. He went into the cave on 8 November 1968 accompanied by Meiwada, head of the sub-clan associated with Inakebu, who had never been inside before. Heers and Meiwada investigated the two outer chambers but then turned back because they had only poor lights. They returned with better light on 15 November. Since they had not become sick or died, they then found seven other men willing to accompany them. They found the narrow opening leading to the final chamber, and discovered the drawings. None of the men, many of whom were quite old, had ever seen the drawings or heard any mention of them before. The drawings are the only indication that people had previously been in this deep chamber. There are no ashes or soot marks, no footprints, and no pottery, bones or shells such as are commonly found in other Trobriand caves, though bones and shells occur in the chamber near the entrance. With one exception, the drawings are all on the same sort of surface, a clean bedrock surface on cream coloured, fairly dense and uniform limestone, with a suitably rough texture. Generally the surface has a slight overhang, and so is protected from flows or dripping water. On surfaces with dripstone shawls or stalactites, the drawings were always placed between the trickles, on the dry rock. We have found no examples that have been covered by a film of flow stone. The one drawing on a flow stone column is also still on the surface and not covered by later deposition. A film of later deposit would be good to show the age of the drawings, but since the drawings appear to have been deliberately located on dry sites the lack of cover does not indicate that they are necessarily young. There are stencil outlines of three hands, a few small patches of ochre which do not seem to have any form, numerous drawings in black line, and one small engraving.
Includes: 25 figures, 2 maps, 3 photos, 6 refs,
Title: Cooleman and Right Cooleman Caves, Kosciusko National Park, and the Shift of Risings
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(4):71-77
Abstract by author: The Cooleman-Right Cooleman system is an abandoned, nearly horizontal outflow cave of shallow phreatic nature, modified by breakdown. It lies just inside and parallel to a gorge wall of Cave Creek. This relationship, and others like it here, are attributed to a greater water input into the limestone along the lines of dissection of Cooleman Plain rather than to the mechanical effects of slope retreat such as Renault has favoured. This outflow cave has been replaced as the major rising of this karst by the Blue Waterholes a short distance down valley; shallow incision of the valley has accompanied the shift of the rising. This down valley movement does not seem to be explicable by removal of overlying impervious beds in this direction to expose more limestone but by a displacement of the main artery feeding the risings in the course of the deepening of underground karst development as a result of incision. However, this displacement is not more favourable to the emergence of the underground drainage of the Plain as a whole. The downstream shift of the rising therefore remains problematic. Discussion favours interpretation of Cooleman Cave entrance as a secondary breach into the outflow cave previously emerging at Right Cooleman entrance, aided by lateral erosion of the surface stream, but it is recognised that the evidence is far from conclusive.
Includes: 2 figures, 6 refs
Title: Lake Level Fluctuations In Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia
Authors: Lowry, David C.
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(3):58-62
Abstract by author: Changes in air pressure in Cocklebiddy Cave, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia, cause the lake level to fluctuate by several centimetres. The relationship suggests that the explored part of Cocklebiddy Cave is part of a much larger system.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 ref
Title: A Collection of the Bat, Chalinolobus Morio (Gray), From The Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia
Authors: Hall, Leslie S.
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(3):51-57
Abstract by author: A collection of 23 live specimens and 26 complete skeletons of the bat, Chalinolobus - (Gray), was taken from two caves on the Nullarbor Plain. Tables of their forearm and skull measurements are presented. A comparison of the forearm measurements of Nullarbor specimens of C. morio with those of eastern Australian specimens of this species revealed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.01). In Western Australia, C. morio appears to roost and breed in caves, while in eastern Australia, it is generally recognised as a tree dweller. Records of other species of bats collected on the Nullarbor Plain are given.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 tables, 2 photos, 12 refs
Title: A Check on the Radiocarbon Dating of Dessicated Thylacine (Marsupial "Wolf") and Dog Tissue From Thylacine Hole, Nullarbor Region, Western Australia
Authors: Merrilees, D.
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(2):39-42
Abstract by author: A "modern" (180 + or - 76 years B.P.) radiocarbon date (N.S.W. 42) on dessicated rabbit flesh from Thylacine Hole (N63) suggests that dates N.S.W. 28c (4,650 + or - 153 radiocarbon years B.P.) on thylacine flesh and hair and N.S.W. 30 (2,200 + or - 96 radiocarbon years B.P.) on dog (dingo) flesh from the same cave are reliable within limits discussed.
Includes: 9 refs
Title: Some Caves of Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K
Published: 1971, Helictite 8(2):29-38
Abstract by authors: The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated 100 miles off the north-east coast of Papua, north of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. Kitava, the most easterly island of the group, is approximately 4~ miles by 2~ miles. It is 15 miles east of Wawela on the main island of Kiriwina, though 50 miles by sea from Losuia around the north coast of Kiriwina. The population is approximately 2,000 natives, the majority being subsistence farmers and fishermen. No Europeans live on the island. Yams, taro, sweet potatoes and bananas are the main garden products. Fish, chickens and eggs are eaten, and pigs are used in ceremonial feasts or "sing-sings" . Kitava is served by occasional boats, but cannot be reached by air. The Administration boat, "The Pearl", is based at Losuia and calls at irregular intervals of a few weeks, the journey from Losuia taking about five hours. Kitavans travel far in their canoes, and the ceremonial Kula trade involves journeys to other Trobriand islands, the Amphletts, Dobu and the Woodlark Islands. The authors spent four days on Kitava in May, 1969, and lived in a native house near the village of Bomapou in the north of the island. Trade tobacco was used as currency to pay for food, and to pay guides and carriers. A trade store has since been established near the beach, a mile from the main village of Kumwageya, and payment in cash may be more acceptable in future. Children appreciate being paid in chewing gum, known throughout the islands as "P.K.". Very little English is spoken on the island and we were fortunate in having the company of Mr. Gilbert Heers who speaks the Kiriwinan language fluently.
Includes: 4 figures, 4 photos, 6 refs
Title: The Origin and Development of Mullamullang Cave N37, Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia
Authors: Hunt, G.S.
Published: 1970, Helictite 8(1):3-21
Abstract by author: Mullamullang Cave N37 is the longest and most complex cave on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia. Unlike the other caves, it possesses extensive levels of phreatic solution tube passages which permit stronger inferences to be made on the development of the collapse passages constituting the bulk of Mullamullang Cave and other deep Nullarbor caves. These passages have been formed by collapse through overlying belts of solution tube networks along an elongated zone of cavitation in the limestone. Massive breakdown was probably initiated at depth within the zone, at least 50 feet below the present watertable level. Upward stoping of the collapse would have been facilitated by the higher network levels in the zone, such as the Ezam and Easter Extension. Channelling of groundwater flow under the Plain is suggested by the belt-like nature of the networks. An epiphreatic origin is proposed for the network levels though convincing morphological evidence is wanting. Eustatic changes in sea level have been of fundamental importance in the development of the multiple levels. Wetter periods in the past were probably important as little development is taking place under present-day dry conditions. Correlation of wetter periods with Pleistocene glacials would help explain the development of huge collapse passages, but such correlatien cannot be assumed on present evidence. Massive collapse and doline formation were followed by subaerial weathering and vadose activity which modified the cave - especially near the entrance. Correlation of levels in Mullamullang with those in other Nullarbor deep caves is attempted. However, Mullamullang Cave is unique probably due to the lithology of the Abrakurrie Limestone in which it is developed.
Includes: 6 photos, 36 refs
Title: River Cave, Cooleman Plain, Kosciusko National Park, And Its Hydrological Relationships
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(4):69-85
Abstract by author: River Cave is a Zwischenhohle (between-cave) in which the active river passage is reached through a former tributary stream passage from a dry valley. Now vadose in character, it is of gentle gradient, with some normally and some temporarily water-filled reaches of shallow phreatic nature. There is only a single level of development. Water tracing has confirmed previous inferences that it is mainly fed from the South Branch watersink, that its normal flow goes to the Blue Waterholes, the main rising of the Plain, and that there is flood overflow to Murray Cave, which is shown to have been formerly the normal outflow cave of the system. In the changeover from one outflow point (Vorfluter) to another, a shorter, steeper cave and longer surface course has been replaced by a longer cave of shorter gradient. Ev's Cave, a flood inflow cave of the South Branch, may also feed River Cave and Keith's Faint Cave is inferred to be part of the link between South Branch Sink and River Cave. It has the aspect of an early stage of vadose development from phreatic conditions. Previous interpretation of Glop Pot as a true phreatic relic is maintained in the light of new facts. Evidence is lacking with which to date the caves at all reliably. Glop Pot possibly belongs to a phase of surface planation of Tertiary age whereas the other caves are likely to be consequent on Pleistocene dissection. The tributary passage of River Cave and its associated dry valley may have lost their stream in the Holocene when Murray Cave became intermittent in action also. The Murray Cave event is due to subterranean piracy associated with rejuvenation whereas the loss of the tributary stream is probably in part due to increasing warmth and less effective precipitation.
Includes: 3 figures, 1 table, 12 refs
Title: Sporomorphs From The Dessicated Carcases of Mammals From Thylacine Hole, Western Australia
Authors: Ingram, B.S.
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(3):62-66
Abstract by author: Assemblages of sporomorphs have been recovered from the gut content of dessicated mammalian carcases of ages estimated up to 5,000 years BP, found in Thylacine Hole, a cave in the Eucla Basin. These assemblages suggest the animals lived in an area of vegetation similar to that existing around the cave at present.
Includes: 5 refs
Title: Caves of Vakuta, Trobriand Islands, Papua
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(3):50-61
Abstract by authors: In a previous paper (1968a) we described caves of Kiriwina, the largest of the Trobriand Islands, a group of coral islands situated 100 miles off the north-east coast of Papua. This paper records caves of Vakuta, a smaller island south of Kiriwina. Vakuta is shaped like a boomerang (Figure 1) and is separated from the southern tip of Kiriwina by Kasilamaka Passage, about half a mile wide. The area of Vakuta Island is approximately 11 square miles. The island contains three villages, the most important being Vakuta Village which has a Methodist (now United Church) Mission. A track links Vakuta Village to Kasilamaka Passage which can be crossed by native canoe; the track continues on Kiriwina to Losuia, 40 miles north. Vakuta Island has a population of about 500. The Vakutans are of the same mixed Melanesian-Polynesian stock as the people of Kiriwina. Woodcarving is not practised to the same extent as in Kiriwina and the quality is generally low. However, some canoes have particularly well decorated prows. The influence of the Mission is very evident in the dress of the Vakutans and in the village, old cast-off clothing, often quite dirty, is the rule. In the fields the women wear grass and fibre skirts though the men were not seen to wear a pubic leaf as usual in Kiriwina, but shorts. Papuan Airlines operate a weekly flight between Port Moresby and Losuia, the Administration Centre, using Skyvan aircraft. Weekend tourist charter flights in DC-3 aircraft arrive frequently, but irregularly, from Port Moresby and occasionally from Lae and Rabual. The authors visited Vakuta Island in December, 1968. Guides were recruited locally and we were fortunate to be assisted by Mr. Gilbert Heers, the only European resident of the island, who speaks fluent Kiriwini which made communication with our guides relatively easy. With his help, we were able to obtain accounts of the legends and traditions associated with the caves on the island. We have also had valuable discussions about Vakuta and the customs and legends of the Trobriand Islands with Mr. Lepani Watson, M.H.A., who was born on Vakuta, and Mr. John Kasaipwalova, a Trobriand Islander now studying at the University of Queensland. We are most grateful for the assistance of these people. Although the most accurate map of the Trobriands is an Admiralty chart, the authors used an old U.S. Army map which was based on a pre-war Government survey. The caves were roughly surveyed using 100 ft tape, prismatic compass and abney level. The village rest-house became the social centre of the village during our stay. We had no difficulty in finding food. A surprising variety of foods such as yams, sweet potato, eggs, pineapples, soursop, tomatoes and fresh coconut appeared and payment was accepted eagerly in stick tobacco and newspaper. Payment in cash was rarely appreciated, though it will become more useful now that a trade store has been established by the Village Co-operative. To avoid repetitive explanations of features in the accounts of individual caves, various general topics will be discussed first.
Includes: 3 figures, 4 photos, 4 refs
Title: Cave Microclimate: A Note on Moisture
Authors: Wigley, T.M.
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(3):43-49
Abstract by author: The moisture budget of a cave atmosphere is examined quantitatively. The results indicate that caves can be divided into two distinct classes depending on whether the cave atmosphere is or is not saturated. A further consequence of the theory is that greater climate fluctuations are to be expected in caves in which unsaturated conditions prevail. This generalisation may have significance in studies of cavern breakdown and in ecological studies in caves.
Includes: 7 refs
Title: Drought and Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain
Authors: Jennings, J.N. ; Nankivell, I. ; Pratt, C. ; Curtis, R. ; Mendum, J.
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(2):23-38
Abstract by authors: The drought culminating in 1967-68 opened water-traps in Murray Cave, thus permitting the re-exploration and survey in January 1968, of a further 1,000 feet of the main passage. Previous explorations, of which oral tradition persisted, are known to have taken place in 1902-3 and some details of the early visitors are presented. The characteristics of the extension are predominantly shallow phreatic in nature and about half of it episodically functioning in this way at the present time; the water-traps along it are inverted siphons in the strict sense and located at the sharpest changes in cave direction. The exploration limit consists of a rockfall beneath a doline, which appears, therefore, to be at least in part a collapse doline. Beneath two other dolines the cave has no sign of collapse, though tall avens reach towards the surface; these dolines are due to surface solution only. The forward part of the cave is overlain by a short, steep dry valley; the relationship between the two remains problematic but there is good reason not to regard the dry valley as the determinant of the cave's location. The evidence is now stronger for an earlier hypothesis that the cave was formerly the outflow cave of nearby River Cave, a perennially active stream cave. It also seems likely that the episodic activity of Murray Cave is due to flood overflow from River Cave. The hydrological regime of the cave is compared with precipitation records of the nearby stations. The episodic flow through the cave does not require an abnormally wet winter; it can follow fairly quickly after complete emptying of the water-traps and approaches an annual event. Draining of the water-traps is a much less frequent event, but whether a series of low rainfall years is necessary, or a single pronouncedly dry year is sufficient to achieve this, cannot be determined from available data. On either count, it seems probable that the cave opened up two or more times between the known occasions of 1902-3 and 1968 in the period 1909-53 when the cave was visited infrequently.
Includes: 4 figures, 1 photo, 8 refs
Title: The Clastic Sediments of Douglas Cave, Stuart Town, New South Wales
Authors: Frank, R.
Published: 1969, Helictite 7(1):3-13
Abstract by author: Douglas Cave is on the western slopes of central New South Wales about five miles south-west of Stuart Town. The cave was first discovered in 1896 by R. J. Wilson (Leigh, 1897). At the time of discovery, the accumulation of fossil bone in the Bone Room was noted and shortly afterwards some bone was collected by W. S. Leigh. Thylacinus spelaeus, Dasyurus sp. and Macropus sp. were included in the collection (Dun, 1897). The cave was not named when it was discovered, though Trickett does refer to it as "the Stuart Town Caves" in a later report (Trickett, 1898, p. 205). It will be referred to hereafter as the Douglas Cave in honour of the present owner.
Includes: 2 figures, 10 refs
Title: Caves of Kiriwina, Trobriand Islands, Papua
Authors: Ollier, C.D. ; Holdsworth, D.K.
Published: 1968, Helictite 6(4):63-72
Abstract by authors: The Trobriand group of coral islands is situated 100 miles off the northeast coast of Papua and north of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. The largest island, Kiriwina, is 30 miles long and 12 miles across at its widest point. The authors visited Kiriwina for two separate periods of one week in 1967 and 1968 to undertake a phytochemical survey and a reconnaissance exploration of the caves. They believe that they explored all the sizeable caves from Wawela north. A DC-3 aircraft of Papuan Airlines operates a weekly flight between Port Moresby and Losuia, the Administration centre. Accommodation is provided on the island at the Trobriand Hotel, conducted by Mr. T. Ward, whose two trucks are used for local transportation on roads engineered by the US Army during World War II.
Includes: 3 figures, 3 photos, 1 ref
Title: Parietal Art in Koonalda Cave, Nullarbor Plain, South Australia
Authors: Gallus, Alexander
Published: 1968, Helictite 6(3):43-49
Abstract by author: This paper gives a first description of the engravings discovered on the walls of Koonalda Cave(N4), Nullarbor Plain, South Australia. It gives a typologic assessment with reference to known parietal art in the caves of Europe, and to cave engravings discovered in the Katherine area of the Northern Territory, Australia. It establishes the possibility of great antiquity and deals briefly with interpretation. This announcement lays no claim to conclusiveness in the argumentation offered as the facts relating to Australian Palaeolithic Man and his environment are as yet insufficiently known.
Includes: 6 figures, 9 refs
Title: New Records of the False Vampire Bat in Queensland
Authors: Dwyer, P.D.
Published: 1968, Helictite 6(2) 36-40
Abstract by author: Four new distribution records of the false vampire bat in Queensland are recorded, and notes on the Mt. Etna population are given.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 refs
Title: Geomorphology of Barber Cave, Cooleman Plain, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1968, Helictite 6(2):23-29
Abstract by author: Barber Cave is one of the Cooleman Plain caves known for a long time. Inscriptions on the cave walls take white man's knowledge of it at least back to 1875 when it was visited by a party led by John Gale of Queanbeyan. However, the actual date of discovery remains obscure and may belong to the period of the late 1830s to the early 'fifties when there were convict and ex-convict stockmen looking after T.A. Murray's (later Sir Terence Murray) stock on the plain. It is of modest dimensions with about 335m (1,100 ft) of passage, some 25m (80 ft) of overall height, and no spaces worthy of the name chamber. Within this small compass, nevertheless, it possesses such a good range of cave forms that it was selected o represent "karst cave" in the series of landform prototypes being described and illustrated briefly for teaching purposes in the Australian Geographer (Jennings, 1967b). Here a fuller account of its morphology is presented for speleologists.
Includes: 2 figures, 7 refs
Title: Halite Speleothems From the Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia
Authors: Lowry, D.C.
Published: 1967, Helictite 6(1):14-20
Abstract by author: Halite has been found in five caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Western Australia. It occurs as stalactites, stalagmites, crusts, or fibres. The climate of the plain is arid to semi-arid, and the halite is derived from wind-blown salts that accumulate in the soil. The halite forms in the caves under conditions of relatively low humidity (about 70%) and high temperature (about 67°F). Its association with older calcite deposits suggests the climate was once wetter or cooler than at present.
Includes: 3 figures, 11 refs
Title: Further Remarks on the Big Hole, Near Braidwood, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1967, Helictite 6(1):3-9
Abstract by author: The new data from the Big Hole and its vicinity give some further support to the view maintained previously as to its origin, though an approach through water chemistry proved non-committal. Difficulties attaching to an origin by true phreatic solution of underlying limestone through circulations of groundwater of meteoric provenance remain however. Nevertheless, the possibility, not considered previously, that the Big Hole is due to hydrothermal solution in the manner of many collapse structures associated with uranium ore bodies in southwestern U.S.A. finds no support in the regional geology of the Shoalhaven valley, though it could produce features of the right dimensions. Previous lack of a complete parallel to the Big Hole has been removed by reference to the furnas of southern Brazil where a similar origin to the one proposed here is also inferred.
Includes: 1 figure, 6 refs
Title: Tasmanian Cave Fauna: Character and Distribution
Authors: Goede, A.
Published: 1967, Helictite 5(4):71-86
Abstract by author: The geology and nature of the caves is discussed. Cave development has been affected by glacial outwash and periglacial conditions which must be taken into account when considering the development and distribution of cave fauna. The food supply in the caves is limited by the absence of cave-inhabiting bats. Floods while adding to the food supply must be destructive to some forms of terrestrial cave life. The cave fauna consists entirely of invertebrates. The carab genus Idacarabus Lea contains the only troglobites found in Tasmania. A common troglophile throughout the island is Hickmania troglodytes (Higgins and Petterd) which belongs to a very small group of relict spiders. Five species of cave crickets are known from Tasmania and Flinders Island. Three species belong to the genus Micropathus Richards and show an interesting distribution pattern. A single species of glow-worm, Arachnocampa (Arachnocampa) tasmaniensis Ferguson occurs in a number of Tasmanian caves. It is more closely related to the New Zealand species than to glow worms found on the Australian mainland. Other terrestrial cave life is briefly discussed. Aquatic cave life is poorly known. The syncarid Anaspides tasmaniae (Thomson) has been recorded from several caves. It differs from epigean forms in reduction of pigment.
Includes: 2 figures, 3 photos, 22 refs
Title: The Cave Spring Cave Systems, Kimberly Division of Western Australia
Authors: Lowry, David C.
Published: 1967, Helictite 5(3):62-68
Abstract by author: The three cave systems are developed along the course of a seasonal stream that has been superposed on a range of Devonian Limestone in north-western Australia. The cave system furthest upstream has the greatest known development of cave passages in the region (more than 2,300 yards) and is controlled by two sets of vertical joints approximately at right angles to each other.
Includes: 4 figures, 6 refs
Title: Cockroaches (Blattodea) From Australian Caves
Authors: Richards, Aola M.
Published: 1967, Helictite 5(2):35-44
Abstract by author: Ten species of Australian cockroaches are recorded from Australian caves and mines. Most are troglophiles or guanobia. Only one troglobitic species is known. The distribution of these species is given, and attention is drawn to their absence from south-eastern Australia and Tasmania. It is suggested that climatic changes in the Pleistocene and early Recent may have been responsible for this, and that the fauna found in many cave areas may be of comparatively recent origin.
Includes: 1 figure, 14 refs
Title: Discovery of a Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger) Carcase In a Cave Near Eucla, Western Australia
Authors: Lowry, David C. ; Lowry, Jacoba W.J.
Published: 1967, Helictite 5(2):25-29
Abstract by authors: A well preserved carcase of a Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus) was found in October, 1966, in Thylacine Hole (N63), a cave 68 miles west of Eucla in Western Australia.
Includes: 1 figure, 2 photos, 3 refs
Authors: Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1966, Helictite 5(1):12-21
Abstract by author: Speleochronolgy is a study of the age of caves and their contents. At the present time the International Commission for Speleology is collecting data, and as the Australian representative on the Commission, the author would like to hear from anyone with information that may be relevant to speleochronology in Australia or in neighbouring countries. This paper shows some of the aims and methods of the subject and indicates the type of information that may be useful.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 table, 25 refs
Title: Murray Cave, Cooleman Plain, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1966, Helictite 5(1):3-11
Abstract by author: Murray Cave is an almost horizontal former outflow cave, which is now on the brink of inactivity. A heavily decorated upper branch functioned during the first outflow phase and the present inactive entrance succeeded it as the outlet point. Both are at the level of a low aggradational terrace of the North Branch of Cave Creek outside the cave; this probably belongs to a Pleistocene cold period. An undecorated lower branch provided the third phase outlet, which still functions occasionally when water rises up a water trap at the inner end of the main passage and flows along that passage into it. The entrance chamber has angular gravel fill due to frost shattering, which post-dates the development of the lower branch passage and belongs to a late Pleistocene cold period. Evidence of free surface stream action predominates in the cave but shallow phreatic conditions must have contributed to its development.
Includes: 2 figures, 8 refs
Title: Observations on the Eastern Horse-Shoe Bat in North-Eastern New South Wales
Authors: Dwyer, P.D.
Published: 1966, Helictite 4(4):73-82
Abstract by author: Between July, 1960, and December, 1963, observations were made on the natural history of Rhinolophus megaphyllus Gray in north-eastern New South Wales. Typically the species occurs as small colonies in a wide variety of cave and mine roosts. It appears to be absent from available roosting sites at higher altitudes in this area. Seasonal changes in the sizes of testes and epididymides suggest that mating occurs in May and June. The single young are born at maternity colonies through November, and nursing lasts about eight weeks. Field weights do not reflect seasonal variation other than that associated with pregnancy. However, seasonal differences in daytime level of activity are noted and these correlate with behavioural changes apparently related to temperature selection. Changes in colony size are described for several roosts and three movements made by marked individuals are recorded. Males appear to be more sedentary than females. Considerable aggregation of females and their young at maternity colonies (size, 15 to 1,5000 individuals) characterises the spring and summer population.
Includes: 1 figure, 3 tables,15 refs
Title: Caves of the Chillagoe District, North Queensland
Authors: Hamilton-Smith, E.
Published: 1966, Helictite 4(3):53-59
Abstract by author: The caves of the Chillagoe District are well-known by repute, but have not been described in speleological literature to date. The author visited the area in April, 1964, in company with Mr. D. Fitzsimon, of Mareeba. This paper summarises the observations made on that occasion. Chillagoe is an almost deserted town, once the centre of an extensive mining industry, and is situated about 120 miles west of Cairns, North Queensland. Access may be gained either by road or rail from Cairns. It can be seen from Table 1 that the climate is monsoonal, with comparatively heavy summer rains, but with dry weather throughout the remainder of the year. The Silurian Limestone in which the caves occur forms a belt some 40 miles long by four miles wide, extending from Almaden in the south-east to the Walsh River in the north-west. Caves probably occur throughout much of this belt, but known caves are concentrated in the Chillagoe and Mungana areas. Mungana lies approximately ten miles north-west of Chillagoe.
Includes: 1 table, 3 photos, 6 refs
Title: Hand Paintings In Caves (With Special Reference to Aboriginal Hand Stencils From Caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia)
Authors: Lane, Edward A. ; Richards, Aola M.
Published: 1966, Helictite 4(2):33-50
Abstract by authors: This paper discusses hand stencils and imprints found in caves and rock shelters throughout the world, and considers their possible origin and significance. It discusses the paleolithic hand paintings of France and Spain, and presents some of the meanings attributed by various authors to this form of art. Particular mention is made to mutilation found in many of the hand stencils. Reference is made to historic and recent examples of these hand paintings. Australian aboriginal hand paintings in limestone caves and rock shelters are also considered and their meanings discussed. The similarity of Australian and European hand imprints is pointed out. Special reference is made to hand stencils found in caves on the Nullarbor Plain, Southern Australia. It appears that stencils in Abrakurrie Cave show the deepest penetration of aboriginal art yet recorded inside caves in Australia.
Includes: 1 photo, 30 refs
Title: Old Napier Downs Cave, west Kimberly, Western Australia
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1966, Helictite 4(2):25-32
Abstract by author: Although small caves are numerous in the limestone Ranges of the Fitzroy Basin in West Kimberly, (sic, actually Kimberley) large and long caves are few on the basis of present knowledge, and reasons for this paucity are ready to find (Jennings, 1962). Of all the known caves, The Tunnel has probably the greatest geomorphological interest (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963a), though it offers little apparent prospect for further exploration. The string of caves ending in Cave Spring in Bugle Gap (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b) seemed more promising in this latter respect when examined in 1959 and D.C. Lowry (Personal Communication) reports finding considerable extension to one of these caves in a recent visit. Although the cave to be discussed here - Old Napier Downs Cave - is not very large in terms of its known dimensions and a brief reference to it has already been made (Jennings and Sweeting, 1963b, p.27), fuller description in a journal more readily accessible to Australian speleologists and publication of a survey are justified because of the prospects for further exploration that the cave itself and its neighbourhood present.
Includes: 2 figures, 3 refs
Title: Breeding Caves and Maternity Colonies of the Bent-Winged Bat In South-Eastern Australia
Authors: Dwyer, P.D. ; Hamilton-Smith, E.
Published: 1966, Helictite 4(1):3-21
Abstract by authors: Eight breeding Caves of Miniopterus schreibersi (Kuhl) are described from South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales and Southern Queensland, in terms of their structure, the location of nursery areas at which juveniles are deposited after birth, and their physical environments. Maternity colonies are found at these caves through spring, summer and early autumn. Established colonies range from about 15,000 to 200,000 bats at peak size. These individuals are predominantly adult females and their young. Adult males are conspicuous only at the single South Australian breeding cave. Births occur from approximately the beginning of December to mid-January at all colonies except that in South Australia, where a birth period is evident between mid-October to late-November. Artificial warming, as a consequence of bat activity, appears to be characteristic of these Miniopterus schreibersi breeding caves. It is suggested that this may have functional significance in facilitating adequate development of juveniles, and that the habit could be a reflection of the tropical ancestry of this species.
Includes: 3 figures, 4 tables, 16 refs
Title: Bat Erosion in Australian Limestone Caves
Authors: Dwyer, P.D.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(4):85-90
Abstract by author: The clustering areas of bent-winged bats in limestone caves are frequently stained and etched. This staining is very intense, and covers large areas at breeding caves present in Palaeozoic limestones. Erosion of limestone is very conspicuous in these caves. Staining is not intense at breeding caves in Tertiary limestones, but a combination of chemical and mechanical erosion may, in part, account for the depth of dome pits in which the bats cluster. Certain caves that are characterised by extensive guano deposits and by conspicuously eroded and/or stained limestone, but which are currently without large colonies of bats, may represent ancestral breeding caves.
Includes: 1 figure, 7 refs
Title: Movements of Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) In Caves At Waitomo, New Zealand
Authors: Richards, Aola M.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(4):65-78
Abstract by author: Cavernicolous Rhaphidophoridae are very active insects, in spite of their immobile appearance on the walls of caves. Movement is continuous to a greater or lesser degree throughout the 24 hour period of each day. Through marking a representative sample of the total adult population of two species of Rhaphidophoridae in limestone caves in New Zealand, it was shown that several different types of movement occurred; that home ranges had no well-defined limits; and that there was no evidence of territorial behaviour. The technique of marking Rhaphidophoridae is discussed in some detail.
Includes: 5 figures, 2 tables, 12 refs
Title: Caves of the Coastal Areas of South Australia
Authors: Sexton, R.T.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(3):45-59
Abstract by author: The majority of South Australian caves occur in the Tertiary and Quaternary limestones of the coastal areas. Their distribution is discussed here on a geological rather than a geographical basis. The most significant caves are briefly described and illustrated to indicate different types and related developments in the coastal limestones. The most notable feature of the limestones is their soft, porous nature. Caves also occur in South Australia in hard, massively bedded Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian limestones and dolomites. These are not discussed in the present paper. To facilitate recording, South Australia has been divided into six zones as shown in Figure 1, and the caves numbered in order of discovery in each area. In general, both the name and the number of the cave have been given, but unnamed caves are specified by number only. The cave maps have been chosen to give as wide a coverage as possible of the various types, or to illustrate points of particular interest. The arrows on the section lines show the direction of viewing, and the sections are numbered to relate them to the plans. Where a cross-section and longitudinal section intersect, the common line has been drawn to relate the sections. The same scale has been used throughout for ease of comparison.
Includes: 3 figures, 17 refs
Title: Calcium and Magnesium In Karst Waters
Authors: Douglas, I.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(2):23-36
Abstract by author: The basic textbooks and reference sources in speleology (Kunsky, 1954; Trombe, 1952 and Warwick, 1962) describe the process of solution of carbonate rocks in terms of the system CaCO3 - H20 - CO2, making little or no reference to the role of MgCO3 in the solution process. The widespread occurrence of dolomitic rocks amongst the older sedimentary formations of Australia, e.g., at Buchan, Victoria, and Camooweal, Queensland, makes some knowledge of the complexity of solution processes in rocks containing dolomite highly desirable for the understanding of the development of caves in this continent. This paper is intended to review the scattered literature on this topic and to describe what is known of the behaviour of the system CaO - Mg0 - CO2 - H20.
Includes: 2 figures, 5 tables, 23 refs
Title: The Development of Cocklebiddy Cave Eucla Basin, Western Australia
Authors: Lowry, D.C.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(1):15-19
Abstract by author: At present, the best account of cave formation in the Eucla Basin is that of Jennings (1961). However, the paper does not contain detailed information or maps of Cocklebiddy Cave, and this account should help to fill that need. The cave is the westernmost deep cave in the Eucla Basin (see area map in Anderson, 1964). It has received little attention from cave exploration parties from the Eastern States of Australia.
Includes: 3 figures, 3 refs
Title: Present-Day Cave Beetle Fauna in Australia A Pointer to Past Climatic Change
Authors: Moore, B.P.
Published: 1965, Helictite 3(1):3-9
Abstract by author: Beetles form an important element of life in caves, where they provide some of the most spectacular examples of adaptation to the environment. The troglobic forms are of greatest interest from the zoogeographical point of view and their present distributions, which are largely limited to the temperate regions of the world, appear to have been determined by the glaciations and later climatic changes of the Quaternary. Troglophiles, which are much more widespread, show little adaptation and are almost certainly recently evolved cavernicoles.
Includes: 1 figure, 1 photo, 12 refs
Title: Nullarbor Expedition 1963-4
Authors: Anderson, Edward G.
Published: 1964, Helictite 2(4):121-134
Abstract by author: The Nullarbor Plain, Australia's most extensive limestone region, consists of about 65,000 square miles of almost horizontal beds of Tertiary limestone. The Plain extends from near Fowlers Bay, South Australia, approximately 600 miles west across the head of the Great Australian Bight into Western Australia. However, for its size, the Nullarbor appears to be deficient in caves compared with other Australian cavernous limestones. The vastness of the area, isolation, and complete lack of surface water, makes speleological investigation difficult. Some of the most important caves are more than 100 miles apart. The 1963-4 Nullarbor Expedition was organised by members of the Sydney University Speleological Society (SUSS). Two major caves, as well as a number of smaller features were discovered in the western part of the Plain. One cave contains what is believed to be the longest single cave passage in Australia.
Includes: 5 figures, 1 table, 11 photos, 9 refs
Title: Morphology and Development of Caves In the South-west of Western Australia
Authors: Bastian, L.
Published: 1964, Helictite 2(4):105-119
Abstract by author: Caves in the coastal aeolian limestone of Western Australia show two major types of morphology due to different groundwater conditions. The first type comprises linear caves with streams, and develops on a watertable which has pronounced relief because of an undulating impervious substratum. Cave systems of this type are thought to start developing as soon as coherence begins to appear in unconsolidated dunes, and develop rapidly by collapse while the dunes are still weakly cemented, to assume more stable mature forms when the rock is strongly cemented.
Includes: 3 figures, 8 refs
Title: Unexplained Markings in Kintore and Cutta Cutta Caves, Northern Territory, Australia
Authors: Walsh, W.P.
Published: 1964, Helictite 2(3):83-91
Abstract by author: During April 1963, a survey party of Darwin Speleological Group members discovered a series of incised lines on a rock face 600ft. beyond daylight in the Cutta Cutta Cave near Katherine, Northern Territory. A search revealed three more groups of lines in the same area, between 500 and 700ft. beyond daylight. In August the same year, lines were found up to 1,000ft. from daylight and further research could reveal more groups at this distance within the cave. Similar markings were subsequently located in the Kintore Cave, about 31 miles from Cutta Cutta. In Kintore Cave the lines exist both in the cave entrance in daylight, and well into the cave proper.
Includes: 2 photos
Title: Geomorphology of Punchbowl and Signature Caves, Wee Jasper, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1964, Helictite 2(2):57-71
Abstract by author: Because of the ease of its exploration, the Punchbowl-Signature system (Map reference 677587, Army 1/50,000 Sheet 8627-IV, Goodradigbee) is the most frequently visited of the Wee Jasper caves though it contains even less calcite decoration than does Dip Cave. On the other hand, the system is of considerable scientific interest, both biological and geomorphological. Biologically the interest centres on the long-term investigations of the colony of Bentwing Bats (Miniopterus schreibersii blepotis), initiated by G. Dunnet, sustained and enlarged by D. Purchase. On the geomorphological side, though it is now a dry inactive system like Dip Cave, it possesses a morphology which reveals much of the history of its excavation by a former underground river and so contrasts with its neighbour in the same geological formation only a mile away where there are many difficulties in the way of interpretation of its evolution (Jennings, 1963a).
Includes: 8 refs, 9 maps
Title: The Discovery, Exploration and Scientific Investigation of the Wellington Caves, New South Wales
Authors: Lane, Edward A. ; Richards, Aola M.
Published: 1963, Helictite 2(1):3-53
Abstract by authors: Although research has been unable to establish a definite date of discovery for the limestone caves at Wellington, New South Wales, documentary evidence has placed it as 1828. The actual discovery could have been made earlier by soldiers or convicts from the Wellington Settlement, which dated from 1823. Whether the aborigines knew of the cave's existence before 1828 is uncertain, but likely, as in 1830 they referred to them as "Mulwang". A number of very small limestone caves were also discovered about the same time in the nearby Molong area. The Bungonia Caves, in the Marulan district near Goulburn, were first written about a short time later. On all the evidence available at present, the Wellington Caves can be considered to be the first of any size discovered on the mainland of Australia. The Wellington Caves are situated in a low, limestone outcrop about six miles south by road from the present town of Wellington, and approximately 190 miles west-north-west of Sydney. They are at an altitude of 1000 feet, about half a mile from the present bed of the Bell River, a tributary of the Macquarie River. One large cave and several small caves exist in the outcrop, and range in size from simple shafts to passages 200 to 300 feet long. Mining for phosphate has been carried out, resulting in extensive galleries, often unstable, at several levels. Two caves have been lit by electricity for the tourist trades; the Cathedral Cave, 400 feet long, maximum width 100 feet, and up to 50 feet high; and the smaller Gaden Cave. The Cathedral Cave contains what is believed to be the largest stalagmite in the world, "The Altar", which stands on a flat floor, is 100 feet round the base and almost touches the roof about 40 feet above. It appears that the name Cathedral was not applied to the cave until this century. The original names were "The Great Cave", "The Large Cave" or "The Main Cave". The Altar was named by Thomas Mitchell in 1830. See map of cave and Plate. Extensive Pleistocene bone deposits - a veritable mine of bone fragments - were found in 1830, and have been studied by palaeontologists almost continually ever since. These bone deposits introduced to the world the extinct marsupials of Australia, and have a special importance in view of the peculiar features of the living fauna of the continent. The names of many famous explorers and scientists are associated with this history, among the most prominent being Sir Thomas Mitchell and Sir Richard Owen. Anderson (1933) gives a brief outline of why the Wellington Caves fossil bone beds so rapidly attracted world-wide interest. During the 18th and early 19th Century, the great palaeontologist, Baron Georges Cuvier, and others, supposed that the earth had suffered a series of catastrophic changes in prehistoric times. As a result of each of these, the animals living in a certain area were destroyed, the area being repopulated from isolated portions of the earth that had escaped the catastrophe. The Bilical Deluge was believed to have been the most recent. Darwin, during the voyage of the Beagle around the world (1832-37), was struck by the abundance of Pleistocene mammalian fossils in South America, and also by the fact that, while these differed from living forms, and were in part of gigantic dimensions, they were closely related to present-day forms in that continent. Darwin's theory of descent with modification did not reconcile with the ideas of Cuvier and others. As the living mammalian fauna of Australia was even more distinctive than that of South America, it was a matter of importance and excitement to discover the nature of the mammals which had lived in Australia in the late Tertiary and Pleistocene.
Includes: 8 photos, 87 refs, 1 map
Title: The Lava Caves of Victoria
Authors: Ollier, C.D.
Published: 1963, Helictite 1(4):69-77
Abstract by author: Many lava tunnels are found in the Western District of Victoria, associated with volcanic eruptions of Pleistocene to Recent age, and some are probably only a few thousand years old. All Australian volcanoes are now extinct, but the most recently active were probably erupting up to 5,000 years ago, that is after the arrival of the Australian aboriginal. The newness of the Victorian caves results in original features being preserved in fine detail. All known lava caves have now been surveyed, mainly by members of the Victorian Cave Exploration Society.
Includes: 2 figures, 4 refs
Title: Morphology of New Zealand Limestone Caves
Authors: Laird, M.G.
Published: 1963, Helictite 1(4):63-68
Abstract by author: Limestone caves in New Zealand can be divided into two distinct groups : those developed in the nearby flat-lying limestone of Oligocene age, and those formed in the strongly folded Mt. Arthur Marble of Upper Ordovician age. Caves formed in Oligocene limestone are typically horizontal in development, often having passages at several levels, and are frequently of considerable length. Those formed in Mt. Arthur Marble have mainly vertical development, some reaching a depth of several hundred feet. Previous research into the formation and geological history of New Zealand cave systems is discussed briefly, and the need for further work is emphasised.
Includes: 6 refs
Title: Geomorpholgy of the Dip Cave, Wee Jasper, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1963, Helictite 1(3):43-58
Abstract by author: The Dip Cave lies about three miles south of Wee Jasper on the western side of the Goodradigbee valley about 500 yards from the river. The cave underlies the nose of a spur running fairly steeply down from Wee Jasper range west of the valley. Only the terminal part of the spur is of limestone, the rest is of impervious rocks. In fact, shales outcrop along the road immediately above the cave. Below this spur there is a much more gently inclined bench in the limestone, trenched by steep-sided gullies coming down from the two flanks of the spur.
Includes: 5 refs
Title: Water Sampling at Yarrangobilly, New South Wales
Authors: Jennings, J.N.
Published: 1963, Helictite 1(2):3-7
Abstract by author: Various geomorphologists such as Bögli, Corbel and Lehmann have in recent years demonstrated the interest that certain simple chemical analyses of natural waters can have for the comparison of rates of limestone solution in different in different climatic conditions. They can also have their relevance for the tracing of underground water connections as Oertli (1953) has shown in the example of the Slovenian part of the classical Yugoslavian karst. Since 1957, the writer has therefore been making such analyses of waters from Australian limestone areas. The chief significance of these measurements comes when one caving area is compared with another. M.M. Sweeting (1960) has already commented briefly on observations from Mole Creek, Tasmania, Buchan, Victoria and the Fitzroy Basin, Western Australia, made in 1958-59 by herself and the writer; further discussion will appear in a forthcoming publication of ours on the Limestone Ranges of the Fitzroy Basin. Nevertheless measurements of this kind can have a certain intrinsic interest as it is hoped to show in the following notes on the few observations I made at Yarrangobilly. These observations are set out in tabular and Trombe graph forms; the locations of the collecting points are shown on the map.
Includes: 1 table, 4 refs
Title: Observations on Caves, Particularly Those Of South Australia - 1862
Authors: Lane, Edward A.
Published: 1962, Helictite 1(1):15-20
Abstract by author: The historical study of Australian caves and caving areas is fascinating although involving the expenditure of vast amounts of time. Australia's early days are unusually well-documented, but in the case of caves the early history is usually wrapped up in rumour, hearsay and clouded by lack of written record. Most research work means long hours poring over old newspaper files, mine reports, land department records and so on, little of which is catalogued. A small number of exploration journals and scientific studies have extensive material on special cave areas, and of these, the volume by Rev. Julian Edmund Woods, F.G.S., F.R.S.V., F.P.S., etc., and is one of the most interesting. This book gives the ideas and beliefs of 100 years ago concerning the origin, development and bone contents of caves and makes interesting reading in the light of more recent studies of cave origins. Wood's study "Geological Observations in South Australia : Principally in the District South-East of Adelaide" was published in 1862 by Longman, Green, Roberts and Green, London. In a preface dated November 15, 1861, Rev. Woods points out that the book was written while he was serving as a missionary in a 22,000 square mile district, and "without the benefit of reference, museum, library, or scientific men closer than England". Up to the time of writing, almost no scientific or geological work had been done in South Australia and much of the area was completely unexplored. The book, also, contained the first detailed description of caves in the south-east of the state. Father Woods writes about many different types of caves in South Australia, for instance, the "native wells" in the Mt. Gambier/Mt. Shanck area. These are caves, rounded like pipes, and generally leading to water level. Woods points out their likeness to artificial wells. He also writes of sea cliff caves, particularly in the Guichen Bay area, and blow holes caused by the action of the waves on the limestone cliffs. Woods discusses many other types of caves found further inland, particularly bone caves. Father Woods discusses cave origins under two sub-heads: 1. Trap rock caves generally resulting from violent igneous action, and 2. Limestone caves resulting from infiltration of some kind. He is mainly concerned with limestone caves which he sub-divides into (a) crevice caves - caves which have arisen from fissures in the rock and are therefore wedge-shaped crevices, widest at the opening, (b) sea-beach caves, caves which face the seashore and are merely holes that have been worn by the dashing of the sea on the face of the cliff, (c) egress caves, or passages to give egress to subterranean streams, (d) ingress caves, or passages caused by water flowing into the holes of rocks and disappearing underground. These caves would have entrance holes in the ground, opening very wide underneath, and having the appearance of water having entered from above, (e) finally a group of caves which he lists by use as "dens of animals".
Includes: 4 refs
Title: Cave Animals and Their Environment
Authors: Richards, Aola M.
Published: 1962, Helictite 1(1):3-13
Abstract by author: Caves can be divided into three distinct regions - the twilight zone, the transitional zone and the troglic zone. The main physical characters of caves - light, air currents, temperature and humidity - are discussed in relation to their effect on cave fauna. Various classifications of cave animals are mentioned, and those of Schiner and Jeannel discussed in detail. The paucity of food in caves, and its effect on the animal population is considered. Mention is made of the loss of secondary sexual characters and seasonal periodicity of breeding among true troglobites. Cave animals have undergone many adaptations to their environment, the most interesting of these being blindness and loss of pigment. Hyper-development of tactile, gustatory, olfactory and auditory organs and general slenderness of body, are correlated with eye degeneration. Several theories on the origin of cave fauna are discussed, and the importance of isolation on the development of cave fauna considered.
Includes: 11 refs
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